Objective—To determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha).
Animals—15 healthy thick-billed parrots.
Procedures—Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. In the first bird that was anesthetized, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.0% for 15 minutes. After this period of anesthetic equilibration, an end-tidal gas sample was obtained for verification of isoflurane concentration. A toe was pinched to determine the bird's response to pain, and the bird was then allowed to recover from aesthesia. To determine MAC, a so-called up-and-down approach was subsequently used in all 15 birds. Compared with the isoflurane concentration used for MAC determination in the first bird, maintenance isoflurane concentration for the second bird was increased by approximately 10% if the first bird reacted and decreased by approximately 10% if the first bird did not react to a toe pinch. These steps were then followed until all 15 birds had been anesthetized. Crossover events occurred when birds in sequence had discordant results (ie, 1 reactor and 1 nonreactor). The MAC was defined as the mean of the isoflurane concentrations measured during these crossover events.
Results—Mean MAC of isoflurane in thick-billed parrots was estimated to be 1.07% (95% confidence interval, 0.97% to 1.16%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflurane MAC appears to be lower in thick-billed parrots than the MAC determined for other bird species. Determination of the species-specific requirements of thick-billed parrots should allow isoflurane anesthesia to be performed more safely in this endangered species.
Objective—To develop a clinically applicable technique for recording cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) following stimulation of the radial and ulnar nerves and establish reference values for radial and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) in the wings of ducks.
Animals—8 clinically normal adult female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).
Procedures—Radial and ulnar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) and CDPs were recorded following distal sensory nerve stimulation. The CDPs were recorded from the interarcuate space between the last cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra. Surgical dissection and transection of the brachial plexus in 1 anesthetized duck were performed to identify nerve root location and confirm functional loss of nerve conduction assessed by loss of the CDP.
Results—Radial and ulnar CNAPs and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Median radial SNCV was 38.3 m/s (range, 36.0 to 49.0 m/s), and ulnar SNCV was 35.3 m/s (range, 28.0 to 40.0 m/s). Surgical transection of the brachial plexus resulted in complete loss of the CDP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of radial and ulnar SNCV or CDP is feasible in isoflurane-anesthetized mallard ducks. The CDP accurately reflects sensory nerve conduction through the brachial plexus. Assessment of brachial plexus function in mallard ducks via evaluations of SNCVs and CDPs may have application for diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus, evaluation of neuropathies associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, and assessment of the efficacy of interventions such as brachial plexus nerve blockade.
Objective—To determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) and compare MAC obtained via mechanical and electrical stimulation.
Animals—15 healthy thick-billed parrots.
Procedures—Anesthesia was induced in each parrot by administration of sevoflurane in oxygen. An end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 2.5% was established in the first bird. Fifteen minutes was allowed for equilibration. Then, 2 types of noxious stimulation (mechanical and electrical) were applied; stimuli were separated by 15 minutes. Responses to stimuli were graded as positive or negative. For a positive or negative response to a stimulus, the target end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of the subsequent bird was increased or decreased by 10%, respectively. The MAC was calculated as the mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration during crossover events, defined as instances in which independent pairs of birds evaluated in succession had opposite responses. A quantal method was used to determine sevoflurane MAC. Physiologic variables and arterial blood gas values were also measured.
Results—Via quantal analysis, mean sevoflurane MAC in thick-billed parrots determined with mechanical stimulation was 2.35% (90% fiducial interval, 1.32% to 2.66%), which differed significantly from the mean sevoflurane MAC determined with electrical stimulation, which was 4.24% (90% fiducial interval, 3.61% to 8.71%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane MAC in thick-billed parrots determined by mechanical stimulation was similar to values determined in chickens and mammals. Sevoflurane MAC determined by electrical stimulation was significantly higher, which suggested that the 2 types of stimulation did not induce similar results in thick-billed parrots.
Objective—To characterize clinical features of avian
vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots.
Animals—26 AVM-affected American coots and 12
Procedures—Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic,
and plasma biochemical evaluations were
performed. Affected coots received supportive care.
All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status
was confirmed via histopathologic findings.
Results—3 severely affected coots were euthanatized
immediately after examination. Seventeen
affected coots were found dead within 7 days of
admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days
and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical
examination findings appeared to be related to general
debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal
reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%),
decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue
weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as
absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria
(15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%),
and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross
abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically,
all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation
of white matter of the brain. None of the control
coots had vacuolation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
there was considerable variability in form and severity
of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs
common in AVM-affected birds were identified.
Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can
occur when supportive care is administered. Until the
etiology is identified, caution should be exercised
when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be
affected by AVM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: