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  • Author or Editor: R. O. Gilbert x
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In Holstein cattle, an inherited disease has been recognized recently in which leukocytes lack surface glycoproteins termed β2 integrins, which are important in cell adhesion processes. This disease is the homologue of leukocyte adhesion deficiency in human beings and has been termed bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. The molecular basis of this disease is failure to produce normal CD18. The gene encoding bovine CD18 and its abnormal mutation have been sequenced, allowing specific diagnosis of the condition by DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction followed by specific endonuclease digestion. This test was applied to formalin-fixed archival tissues from 18 cattle that had been admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital between 1975 and 1991 and that had had persistent and severe neutrophilia. Blood samples were collected from 2 additional cattle, and leukocytes from these samples also were tested. Fourteen cattle were confirmed to have been homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency gene. Cattle with this condition had ranged in age from 2 weeks to 8 months at admission. They typically had had chronic bacterial infections that had failed to respond to or had recurred after conventional treatment. Consistent findings in these cattle included signs of bronchopneumonia, gingivitis, periodontitis, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Severe neutrophilia, usually without a left shift, was a hallmark of the disease; consistent clinical biochemical findings included hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoglycemia. This disease is important because it mimics common calfhood diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea, but is ultimately consistently fatal before adulthood.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether onset of mineralization of the femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and age at closure of the femoral and acetabular triradiate growth plates was different for Labrador Retrievers that were radiographically normal or that had canine hip dysplasia (CHD).


Cohort study.


36 Labrador Retriever puppies.


Puppies were radiographed every other day from the time they were 8 to 10 days old until ossification of the femoral heads was apparent. Radiographs were then obtained weekly until puppies were 1 month old and then monthly until puppies were 8 to 12 months old. Age at which mineralization was first observed in the proximal and distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and at which the femoral capital, triradiate acetabular, and distal femoral growth plates were no longer radiographically visible were recorded. Fifteen dogs were euthanatized and necropsied to determine whether dogs had CHD.


There were 26 radiographically normal left and right hip joints and 10 dysplastic left and right hip joints. Onset of mineralization of the proximal femoral epiphyses and of the right proximal tibial epiphysis was significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal puppies. The left femoral capital growth plates closed significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal joints, but other differences in growth plate closure were not detected.

Clinical Implications—

Endochondral ossification may be abnormal in dogs with CHD. The disease appears to affect multiple joints, even though it is most evident clinically in the hip joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210: 1458–1462)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the cytopathic effects of Tritrichomonas foetus and a purified cysteine protease (ie, CP30) of T foetus on cultured bovine uterine epithelial cells (BUECs) in vitro.

Sample Population—10 reproductive tracts were obtained from late-term bovine fetuses at a commercial abattoir.

Procedure—An in vitro culture system of BUECs was developed to study the cytopathic effects of T foetus and purified CP30 of T foetus on host cells. Cytotoxicity of T foetus or CP30 on exposed BUECs was determined. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses were used to detect apoptosis. A fluorometric assay was used to detect BUEC caspase 3 activation. The CP inhibitor E-64 and a caspase inhibitor were used to inhibit apoptosis.

Results—Cytopathic effects were observed in BUECs treated with parasites or CP30 and were concentration and time dependent. The BUECs underwent apoptosis in the presence of parasites or CP30. The specific CP inhibitor E-64 abolished the induction of apoptosis in BUECs by CP30. The caspase inhibitor reduced the amount of apoptosis in BUECs.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceT foetus and its CP30 induce apoptosis in cultured BUECs in vitro. Induction of apoptosis by CP30 is correlated with protease activity. Endometrial cell death as a result of a T foetus infection is likely to be more important in mediating infertility than a direct effect on the conceptus. Provoking an apoptotic reaction in the host may mitigate an inflammatory reaction or immune response and therefore favor survival of the parasite in a chronic infection. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1181–1186)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research