Objective—To assess signalment, history, results of
clinical and laboratory testing, and outcome for beef
cattle with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced
abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV).
Animals—19 beef cattle with an AV, LDA, or RDA.
Procedure—Signalment; history; results of physical
examination, diagnostic testing, and surgical exploration;
and condition of the animal at discharge were
obtained from medical records.
Results—Fourteen cattle had an AV, 4 had an RDA,
and 1 had an LDA. Duration of clinical signs ranged
from 1 to 21 days. Eighteen cattle had an AV or RDA;
7 were Brahmans, 12 were males, and median age
was 10 months. Abdominal distention was observed
in 11 cattle, heart rate of ≥ 100 beats/minute was
detected in 14, and the abomasum was palpable per
rectum in all cattle in which per rectal examination
was performed. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hyperglycemia,
azotemia, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia
were common laboratory findings. At surgery, 3 cattle
with an AV or RDA had a ruptured abomasum. Of the
remaining 15 cattle, 12 survived.
Conclusions—Clinical course in beef cattle with an
AV or RDA was more protracted than that typically
associated with these conditions in dairy cattle, but
survival rate in beef cattle that did not have rupture of
the abomasum was sim ilar to that of dairy cattle.
Clinical Relevance—Abomasal displacement should
be considered for beef cattle with abdominal distention.
Prognostic indicators recommended for use in
dairy cattle may not be useful for beef cattle. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:730–733)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of erythromycin on
motility of the ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure of horses
during the postoperative and post-recovery periods.
Animals—8 healthy adult horses.
Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and bipolar
electrodes were implanted in smooth muscle of the
ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure. Approximately 4, 16,
and 24 hours (postoperative recording sessions) and
at least 8 days (post-recovery recording session) after
surgery, myoelectric activity was recorded before and
after administration of erythromycin (0.5 mg/kg).
Results—Following erythromycin administration,
myoelectric activity was increased in the ileum during
all postoperative recording sessions but not during
the post-recovery recording session. Myoelectric
activity was increased in the cecum following erythromycin
administration only during the post-recovery
recording session. Myoelectric activity was
increased in the pelvic flexure following erythromycin
administration during all recording sessions. During
several recording sessions, there were short periods
during which myoelectric activity was significantly
decreased following erythromycin administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that erythromycin has an effect on myoelectric
activity of the ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure in
horses; however, prokinetic effects of erythromycin
administered during the postoperative period were
not always the same as effects obtained when the
drug was administered after horses had recovered
from the effects of surgical implantation of recording
devices. Therefore, caution must be exercised when
extrapolating results of prokinetic studies in healthy
animals to animals with abnormal gastrointestinal
tract motility. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:420–424)
Objective—To evaluate effects of IV administration of
penicillin G potassium (KPEN) or potassium chloride
(KCl) on defecation and myoelectric activity of the
cecum and pelvic flexure of horses.
Animals—5 healthy horses.
Procedure—Horses with 12 bipolar electrodes on the
cecum and pelvic flexure received KPEN or KCl solution
by IV bolus 4 hours apart. Each horse received
the following: 2 × 107 U of KPEN (high-dose KPEN) followed
by 34 mEq of KCl (high-dose KCl), 1 × 107 U of
KPEN (low-dose KPEN) followed by 17 mEq of KCl
(low-dose KCl), high-dose KCl followed by high-dose
KPEN, and low-dose KCl followed by low-dose KPEN.
Number of defecations and myoelectric activity were
recorded for 60 minutes. The first three 5-minute segments
and first four 15-minute segments of myoelectric
activity were analyzed.
Results—Number of defecations during the first 15-
minute segment was greater after high-dose KPEN
treatment than after high-dose or low-dose KCl treatment.
Compared with reference indexes, myoelectric
activity was greater in the pelvic flexure for the first 5-
minute segment after high-dose KCl treatment, in the
cecum and pelvic flexure for the first 5-minute segment
and in the pelvic flexure for the first 15-minute
segment after low-dose KPEN treatment, and in the
pelvic flexure for the first and second 5-minute segments
and the first three 15-minute segments after
high-dose KPEN treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration
of KPEN stimulates defecation and myoelectric
activity of the cecum and pelvic flexure in horses.
Effects of KPEN may be beneficial during episodes of
ileus. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1360–1363)
Objective—To determine results of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis and percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution for treatment of male goats with urolithiasis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 male goats with urolithiasis treated with Walpole's solution.
Procedures—Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, degree of urethral obstruction (partial vs complete), pertinent examination findings, concurrent illnesses, diet, other treatments administered, duration of hospitalization, whether the obstruction resolved, and outcome (ie, discharged vs euthanized).
Results—14 (58%) animals had complete urethral obstruction, and 10 (42%) had partial obstruction (degree of urethral patency was not recorded in 1 animal). Walpole's solution was infused once in 18 (72%) animals, twice in 6 (24%) animals, and 3 times in 1 (4%) animal. The amount of Walpole's solution required to achieve the target urine pH of 4 to 5 ranged from 50 to 250 mL. In 20 (80%) goats, the urethral obstruction resolved, and the goat was discharged. The remaining 5 (20%) goats were euthanized because of unresolved urethral obstruction. Six of the 20 (30%) goats that were discharged were reexamined because of recurrence of urethral obstruction.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasound-guided cystocentesis in combination with percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution may be a useful treatment in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis.
Objective—To determine risk factors associated with
development of postoperative ileus in horses undergoing
surgery for colic.
Animals—69 horses that developed ileus after
surgery for colic and 307 horses that did not develop
Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic
data, treatment, lesions, and outcome were obtained
from medical records.
Results—Variables associated with increased risk of
postoperative ileus included age > 10 years, Arabian
breed, PCV ≥ 45%, high serum concentrations of protein
and albumin, anesthesia > 2.5 hours' duration,
surgery > 2 hours' duration, resection and anastomosis,
and lesions in the small intestine. Enterotomy
reduced the risk of postoperative ileus. After multivariate
logistic regression, the final model included
the variables Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, lesion type,
duration of surgery (> 2 hours vs ≤ 2 hours), and
pelvic flexure enterotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that by evaluating certain factors, horses at
increased risk of postoperative ileus may be recognized
before the condition develops. Preventative
treatment and early intervention may be instituted in
these horses. Shortening surgery time and performing
an enterotomy may decrease the probability of
horses developing postoperative ileus. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To examine the effect of various clinical tracks within the veterinary medical clinical curriculum at Texas A&M University on clinical diagnostic proficiency as determined by pre- and post-training assessment. We expected that the clinical track chosen by the student would impact their measured outcome with bias toward higher scores in their chosen field.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Study Population—32 students from the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University.
Procedures—By use of standardized, written case scenarios, clinical reasoning was assessed twice: once prior to the clinical (fourth) year of the curriculum and again at completion of the clinical year. Students demonstrated their abilities to collect and organize appropriate clinical data (history, physical examination, and laboratory findings), determine clinical diagnoses, and formulate and implement acceptable treatment modalities. Data from clinical assessments were compared for a given cohort and correlated with other measures (eg, grades, standardized test scores, and species-specific curricular track).
Results—Differences were detected in clinical diagnostic proficiency among students in different clinical tracks and for different species groups in the case scenarios. Tracking by species group in the clinical veterinary curriculum appeared to affect development of clinical reasoning and resulted in differential proficiency among cases for differing species groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in clinical experiences between small animal tracks and all other track opportunities (large animal, mixed animal, and alternative) influenced the development of clinical proficiency in fourth-year veterinary students during their clinical training period.