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Ninety-five aborted bovine fetuses received from California dairies over a 4.5-year period had histologic lesions of focal encephalitis. Protozoa that reacted with Neospora caninum antiserum were detected in the brain of 88 of these fetuses and in the heart of 1 fetus. Sarcocystis spp schizonts were seen in the vascular endothelium of 1 fetus. It was concluded that a Neospora-like cyst-forming coccidian may be a major cause of abortion in California dairy cattle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



Evaluate agreement among the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida obtained by transtracheal wash, nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, and bronchoalveolar lavage.


100 Holstein and Holstein-cross bull calves with bovine respiratory disease.


Calves > 30 days old with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease were sampled sequentially by nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, transtracheal wash, and then bronchoalveolar lavage. Samples were cultured, and for each antimicrobial, the MIC of 50% and 90% of isolates was calculated, and isolates were categorized as susceptible or not. Categorical discrepancies were recorded. Percent positive agreement and kappa values were calculated between isolates for each of the sampling methods.


Antimicrobial susceptibility varied by pathogen and resistance to enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and spectinomycin was detected. Minor discrepancies were seen in up to 29% of classifications, with enrofloxacin, penicillin, and florfenicol more frequently represented than other drugs. Very major and major discrepancies were seen when comparing florfenicol (1.9%) and tulathromycin (3.8 to 4.9%) across sampling methods. Some variability was seen in agreement for enrofloxacin for several comparisons (8.3 to 18.4%).


Susceptibility testing of isolates from 1 location of the respiratory tract can reliably represent susceptibility in other locations. Nevertheless, the potential for imperfect agreement between sampling methods does exist. The level of restraint available, the skill level of the person performing the sampling, the age and size of the animal, disease status, and treatment history all must be factored into which test is most appropriate for a given situation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To estimate the minimum rate of abortion attributable to infection with Neospora sp in selected California dairy herds.


Prospective study.


Twenty-six dairy herds containing 19,708 cows were studied. Fourteen herds had a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and 12 were herds in which neosporosis had not been identified as a cause of abortions.


During a 1-year period, all available aborted fetuses were submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to determine the cause of abortion. Reproductive records of cows that aborted were reviewed.


Neospora sp infection was the major cause of abortion identified (113/266 abortions, 42.5%). The majority (232/266, 87.2%) of the aborted fetuses were submitted from herds with a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and Neospora sp infection was identified as the causative agent in 101 of 232 (43.5%) of the abortions from these herds. Fewer aborted fetuses were submitted from the 12 herds that did not have a history of abortion attributable to Neospora sp; however, neosporosis was confirmed as a cause of abortion in 6 of these 12 herds and was identified as the causative agent in 12 of 34 (35.3%) abortions from these herds. The disease was widespread throughout the state (19/26 herds in our study). Available reproductive histories of cows that had abortions attributed to neosporosis were evaluated, and 4 cows were identified that twice aborted Neospora-in-fected fetuses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association