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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of systemic disease signs for classifying severity of acute coliform mastitis in dairy cows.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—144 dairy cows.

Procedure—Cows were examined at the time of initial identification of disease (time 0) and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe disease on the basis of rectal temperature, hydration status, rumen contraction rate, and attitude. A CBC and serum biochemical analyses were performed, and milk samples were submitted for bacterial culture at time 0 and 48 hours later.

Results—69 cows were classified as having mild disease, 44 as having moderate disease, and 31 as having severe disease. Median WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in cows with moderate or severe disease at time 0 than in cows with mild disease. Band neutrophil count was significantly higher at 48 hours and serum calcium concentration was significantly lower at time 0 and at 48 hours in cows with severe or moderate disease, compared with cows with mild disease. Twenty-eight, 51, and 77% of cows with mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively, had > 100,000 colony-forming units/ml of milk at time 0. The odds that a cow with severe disease would die or be culled were 3.6 times the odds for a cow with moderate disease and 11.2 times the odds for a cow with mild disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a classification scheme based on readily observable systemic disease signs can be used to classify disease severity in cows with acute coliform mastitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:567–572)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of bacteremia in dairy cows with naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis (ACM) with a wide range of disease severity.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—144 dairy cows with ACM from 6 herds.

Procedure—Cows were examined at time of identification of ACM (time 0) and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe mastitis on the basis of rectal temperature, hydration status, rumen contraction rate, and attitude. Cows were reexamined at 24 or 48 hours. Bacteriologic culturing of milk and blood (30 ml), CBC, and serum biochemical analysis were performed at each time point. Appropriate samples were obtained at a single point from herdmates without mastitis (controls) that were closely matched for lactation number and days since parturition. Blood culture results were compared among severity groups and controls by use of χ2 tests, as was outcome of an ACM episode for cows grouped by blood bacterial isolates.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from 52 blood samples from 46 of 144 (32%) cows with ACM, which was significantly more than control cows (11/156; 7.1%). Group-1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium) were identified in 20 of 144 (14%) cows with ACM and 0 of 156 control cows. Group-1 isolates were identified in 4.3, 9.1, and 42% of cows classified as having mild, moderate, and severe ACM, respectively. Escherichia coli and K pneumoniae milk and blood isolates obtained from the same cow were of the same genotype. Bacillus spp were identified in 21 of 144 (15%) cows with ACM, which was significantly more than control cows (3/156; 1.9%). Thirty-five percent of cows with a group-1 isolate died during the mastitis episode.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that bacteremia develops in a substantial proportion of cows with ACM. Classification of severity of disease is important for establishment of effective treatment protocols; parenteral antimicrobial treatment may be indicated in cows with ACM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:976–981)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To monitor ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) infection status and the association between OvHV-2 infection and development of clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in cattle.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—30 mature adult cows and 18 cattle submitted for necropsy.

Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from 30 adult cows for 20 consecutive months. Nasal and ocular swab specimens were also collected during months 9 through 20. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of OvHV-2 was performed on blood, milk, nasal swab, and ocular swab specimens. Competitive inhibition ELISA (CI-ELISA) for detection of antibodies against MCF viruses was performed on serum samples obtained prior to study initiation and monthly during the last 12 months. Tissues obtained from herdmates without clinical signs of MCF that were submitted for necropsy were analyzed for OvHV-2 DNA via PCR assay for possible sites of latency.

Results—Initially, 8 of 30 cows had positive CI-ELISA results. Seroconversion was detected in 4 cows. Ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA was intermittently detected in blood, milk, nasal secretions, or ocular secretions from 17 of 30 cows. Twenty-one cows had positive CI-ELISA or PCR assay results. No cattle in the study developed clinical signs of MCF. Results of PCR assays performed on tissue samples from 2 of 18 animals submitted for necropsy were positive for OvHV-2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—OvHV-2 infection can occur in cattle without concurrent development of clinical MCF. Ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA was detected intermittently, suggesting fluctuating viral DNA loads or reinfection in subclinical cattle. A definitive site of latency was not identified from tissues obtained during necropsy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:606–611)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) infection among adult dairy cows in Colorado and determine herd-level factors associated with the risk that individual cows would be seropositive.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—10,280 adult (≥ 2 years old) dairy cows in 15 herds in Colorado.

Procedure—Serum samples were tested with a commercial ELISA. A herd was considered to be infected with MAP if results of mycobacterial culture of ≥ 1 individual cow fecal sample were positive or if ≥ 1 culled cow had histologic evidence of MAP infection.

Results—424 of the 10,280 (4.12%) cows were seropositive. Within-herd prevalence of seropositive cows ranged from 0% to 7.82% (mean, 2.6%). Infection was confirmed in 11 dairies. Cows in herds that had imported ≥ 8% of their current herd size annually during the preceding 5 years were 3.28 times as likely to be seropositive as were cows in herds that imported < 8%. Cows in herds with ≥ 600 lactating cows were 3.12 times as likely to be seropositive as were cows in herds with < 600 lactating cows. Cows in herds with a history of clinical signs of MAP infection were 2.27 times as likely to be seropositive as were cows in herds without clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Annual importation rate, herd size, and whether cows in the herd had clinical signs typical of MAP infection were associated with the risk that individual cows would be seropositive for MAP infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:97–101)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalment, history, and clinical, necropsy, and microbiologic findings in dairy cows with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—22 adult dairy cows from a single farm in Colorado.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, medical and reproductive history, the owner's chief complaints, results of physical examinations and ancillary diagnostic tests, treatment and response to treatment, results of microbiologic testing, and, if applicable, postmortem findings.

Results—Common clinical signs were acute signs of profound depression, decreased milk production, tachycardia, ruminal stasis, abdominal distention, and dark clotted blood in the feces. Rectal examination revealed distended loops of small intestine in 7 of 14 cows. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed small intestinal ileus and distention in 12 of 12 cows and homogeneous echogenic intraluminal material compatible with intraluminal hemorrhage and clot formation in 4. Seven of 8 cows treated medically died; 9 of 13 cows that underwent surgery died or were euthanatized. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from fecal samples from 17 of 20 cows. The most common morphologic diagnosis at necropsy was severe necrohemorrhagic enteritis or jejunitis with intraluminal hemorrhage or blood clots. The most prominent histologic finding was severe, segmental submucosal hemorrhage and edema of the small intestine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm that in adult cattle, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is a sporadic acute intestinal disorder characterized by intraluminal hemorrhage and obstruction of the small intestine. Clostridium perfringens was consistently isolated from the feces of affected cows. The prognosis for affected cows was grave. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:686–689)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association