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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine setting and temperature properties of diluted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in vitro to assess utility for vocal fold augmentation in horses.

SAMPLES

4 dilutions of PMMA equivalent to volumes of 15 mL, 20 mL, 25 mL, and 30 mL PMMA powder (PMMAp) in 10 mL solvent.

METHODS

For each volume PMMAp, setting times (tset), peak temperatures (Tmax), and times to peak temperature (tmax) were determined using a temperature data logger in a 4-mL volume of PMMA. Injectability was assessed in vitro by documenting the force required to inject 0.2 mL PMMA through an 18-gauge 3.5-inch spinal needle attached to a 6-mL syringe at 1-minute intervals. Working time (twork) was calculated from a linear regression of injectability.

RESULTS

Peak temperatures increased with increasing volume of PMMAp: 56 °C, 86 °C, 99 °C, and 101 °C. Times for tset, twork, and tmax were inversely proportional to PMMA concentrations, resulting in tset of 23, 21, 17, and 14 minutes; twork of 22.75, 12.25, 7, and 4 minutes; and tmax of 28, 24, 19, and 16 minutes, respectively, for 15, 20, 25, and 30 mL PMMAp. Pairwise comparisons for all analyses were significant apart from Tmax for 25 and 30 mL PMMAp (P = .96) and twork for 20 and 25 mL PMMAp (P = .06).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Decreasing the concentration of PMMA bone cement resulted in longer working times and setting times; however, peak temperatures did not differ between the 2 strongest concentrations. Further research is warranted to quantify diluted PMMA properties for in vivo use for vocal fold augmentation in horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of hypoglossal nerve block and electrical stimulation of the thyrohyoideus muscles on position of the larynx and hyoid apparatus in resting horses.

Animals—16 healthy horses that underwent hypoglossal nerve block and 5 healthy horses that underwent electrical stimulation of the thyrohyoideus muscles.

Procedures—Horses underwent bilateral hypoglossal nerve block or electrical stimulation of the thyrohyoideus muscles. Positions of the basihyoid bone, ossified part of the thyroid cartilage, and articulations of the thyrohyoid bones and thyroid cartilage were determined in radiographic images obtained before and after performance of hypoglossal nerve blocks or during thyrohyoideus muscle stimulation. Radiographic images were obtained with the heads of horses in neutral (thyrohyoideus muscle stimulation) or neutral and extended (hypoglossal nerve block) positions. Radiographic images of horses obtained after performance of hypoglossal nerve blocks were also evaluated to detect dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

Results—Hypoglossal nerve blocks did not induce significant changes in the positions of evaluated anatomic sites in radiographic images obtained in neutral or extended head positions. Hypoglossal nerve block did not induce dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horses at rest. Bilateral thyrohyoideus muscle stimulation induced significant dorsal movement (mean ± SD change in position, 18.7 ± 6.8 mm) of the ossified part of the thyroid cartilage; rostral movement of evaluated anatomic structures was small and not significant after thyrohyoideus muscle stimulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bilateral electrical stimulation of the thyrohyoideus muscles in horses in this study induced dorsal laryngeal movement.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic changes in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and cricoarytenoideus lateralis (CAL) muscles of horses before and at various times during the 32 weeks after unilateral neurectomy of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve.

ANIMALS 28 healthy Standardbreds.

PROCEDURES For each horse, the appearance of the CAD and CAL muscles on the right (neurectomized) and left (control) sides was serially monitored ultrasonographically by percutaneous (CAD and CAL) and transesophageal (CAD) approaches. The ultrasonographic images were assessed to determine the mean pixel intensity, muscle thickness, and appearance grade, and comparisons were made between the muscles of the neurectomized and control sides.

RESULTS The muscle appearance grade and mean pixel intensity for the CAL and CAD muscles on the neurectomized side were significantly increased by 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after the neurectomy. The transesophageal approach enhanced the ultrasonographic visibility of the CAD muscle and allowed us to detect a significant decrease in the thickness of the CAD muscle on the neurectomized side over time, compared with thickness of the CAD muscle on the control side.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested ultrasonography can be used to successfully assess the CAL and CAD muscles of horses. A qualitative grading scheme was sufficient for successful detection and monitoring of muscle atrophy and reduced the need for image standardization. The transesophageal approach described for assessment of the CAD muscle warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare postoperative complications, short- and long-term survival, and surgical times for hand-sewn end-to-end (EE), stapled functional end-toend (FEE), and stapled side-to-side (SS) anastomotic techniques for jejunal resection in horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—59 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome for horses that underwent jejunojejunostomy in our hospital. Only horses that recovered from anesthesia were included in the study.

Results—Among the 59 horses, there were 33 EE, 15 FEE, and 11 SS anastomoses. No difference was found in duration of surgery among the 3 techniques. The most common postoperative complications were colic episodes (56%), ileus (53%), diarrhea (20%), and adhesions (15%). Horses with SS anastomosis had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative ileus than the EE group did. No significant difference in duration of postoperative ileus was found among the other groups. No difference was found among the 3 anastomotic techniques in regard to survival rate at the time of discharge, 6 months after surgery, or 1 year after surgery. Overall survival rates after jejunal anastomosis were 88% at the time of discharge, 65% at 6 months after surgery, and 57% at ≥ 1 year after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The handsewn EE, stapled FEE, and stapled SS anastomotic techniques should be considered equivalent methods for small intestinal anastomosis in the horse. However, the stapled SS technique may be preferred because of possible decreased duration of postoperative ileus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:215–218)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical and radiographic findings in and treatment and outcome of large animals with shoulder joint luxations.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

5 horses, 3 goats, 1 calf, 1 sheep, 1 Himalayan tahr, 1 pot-bellied pig, 1 reindeer, and 1 white-tailed deer.

Procedure

Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine signalment, history, physical examination findings, type of luxation, treatment, and outcome. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information.

Results

Goats, sexually intact males, and animals < 1 year old were overrepresented, compared with the general hospital population during the study period. Closed reduction was attempted in 3 animals and was successful in 1. Open reduction and internal stabilization was attempted in 4 animals, including 1 in which closed reduction was unsuccessful. Long-term stabilization of the joint was achieved in 3 animals, but overall results were poor because of osteoarthritis and chronic lameness. Three animals were not treated, and 5 were euthanatized because of a poor prognosis.

Clinical Implications

Large animals with shoulder joint luxation and concurrent fractures had a poorer prognosis than did those with shoulder joint luxation alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1608–1611)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Fourteen cows were subjected to thoracotomy as an aid in the treatment of either septic pericarditis (n = 7) or unilateral pleuritis (fibrous or purulent; n = 7). Thoracic lesions were primary in 4 cows, secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis in 9 cows, and secondary to extension of a liver abscess in 1 cow. Thoracotomy was performed on 9 cows under local anesthesia. Surgery was performed on 5 cows under general anesthesia; 2 died during anesthesia, and 2 others were euthanatized. Of the 10 cows allowed to recover from surgery, 4 had pericarditis and 6 had pleuritis. Four cows with pleuritis had thoracic abscesses. All but 1 cow with pericarditis died or were euthanatized, and 5 of the 6 cows with pleuritis were discharged from the hospital. A year after surgery, 1 cow was culled because of infertility, and the other 5 cows were returned to production.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The case records of 20 cows with either a third-degree perineal laceration or rectovestibular fistula were reviewed to ascertain the signalment, history, treatment, and long-term result of treatment. Fifteen cows, including 10 first-calf cows, had third-degree perineal lacerations that occurred at calving. Surgery was done in 14 of 15 cows; 10 of the 14 (71 %) remained fertile. The cow that was not treated surgically was culled after 24 months because of infertility. Five cows had a rectovestibular fistula; 4 of these were treated surgically. The cow that did not have surgery healed by second intention and remained fertile, and 3 of the 4 cows in which surgery was performed were fertile. None of the cows that produced calves after the initial injury suffered a perineal laceration at subsequent calvings. Single-stage surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration or rectovestibular fistula appeared to have a good prognosis for subsequent fertility in cows.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the phase and quantitate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles of clinically normal horses during strenuous exercise.

Animals—7 clinically normal adult horses (2 Thoroughbreds and 5 Standardbreds).

Procedures—Bipolar electrodes were surgically implanted in the aforementioned muscles, and horses were subjected to an incremental exercise test on a high-speed treadmill. The EMG, heart rate, respiratory rate, and static pharyngeal airway pressures were measured during exercise. The EMG was measured as mean electrical activity (MEA). The MEA values for maximal exercise intensity (13 or 14 m/s) were expressed as a percentage of the MEA measured at an exercise intensity of 6 m/s.

Results—MEA was detected during expiration in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, sternohyoideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles and during inspiration in the hyoepiglotticus and sternothyroideus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly with exercise intensity in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, and hyoepiglotticus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly in relation to expiratory pharyngeal pressure in the geniohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once exercise intensity reached 6 m/s, no quantifiable additional increase in muscular activity was detected in the omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles. However, muscles that may affect the diameter of the oropharynx (genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles) or rima glottis (hyoepiglotticus muscle) had activity correlated with the intensity of exercise or expiratory pharyngeal pressures. Activity of the muscles affecting the geometry of the oropharynx may be important in the pathophysiologic processes associated with nasopharyngeal patency.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research