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  • Author or Editor: Nicolas F. Villarino x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the plasma disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its derivatives MPA glucuronide and MPA glucoside after twice-daily infusions of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in healthy cats for 3 days and to assess the effect of MMF administration on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios.

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES MMF was administered to each cat (10 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h for 3 days). Each dose of MMF was diluted with 5% dextrose in water and then administered over a 2-hour period with a syringe pump. Blood samples were collected for analysis. A chromatographic method was used to quantitate concentrations of MPA and its metabolites. Effects of MMF on PBMC counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios were assessed by use of flow cytometry.

RESULTS All cats biotransformed MMF into MPA. The MPA area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 to 14 hours ranged from 14.6 to 37.6 mg·h/L and from 14.4 to 22.3 mg·h/L after the first and last infusion, respectively. Total number of PBMCs was reduced in 4 of 5 cats (mean ± SD reduction, 25.9 ± 15.8% and 26.7 ± 19.3%) at 24 and 48 hours after the end of the first infusion of MMF, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma disposition of MPA after twice-daily IV infusions for 3 days was variable in all cats. There were no remarkable changes in PBMC counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the pharmacokinetics and clinical safety of acetaminophen after oral administration of 40 mg/kg q 12 hours or 60 mg/kg q 24 hours for 14 days.


12 healthy light-breed neonatal foals.


6 foals received acetaminophen at 40 mg/kg q 12 hours and 6 foals received 60 mg/kg q 24 hours for 14 days. The study dates were January 31 to April 15, 2023. Physical examinations were performed daily. Plasma disposition of acetaminophen was determined after the first, mid-point drug administration. Hematology and biochemistry analysis was performed before the study, day 7, and the last day of drug administration. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis.


No statistically significant changes occurred on hematology or biochemistry profiles. Elevations in γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were noted in 4 foals at various time points. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred within 2 hours for both doses. The 60 mg/kg dose resulted in a larger median Cmax (range) at 28 μg/mL (22–32) than the 40 mg/kg dose at 23 μg/mL (19–27). The median area under the concentration-vs-time curve from 0 to 8 hours (AUC0–8 hour [range]) was 100 h•µg/mL (82–100) at 40 mg/kg and 128 h•µg/mL (120–168) for 60 mg/kg. Trough concentrations decreased over time for both regimens.


Foals tolerate oral acetaminophen at 40 mg/kg q 12 hours or 60 mg/kg q 24 hours. Further analgesic and antipyretic studies will help to delineate optimal dosage regimens of acetaminophen to treat foals.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research