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  • Author or Editor: Nathaniel Violette x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following endoluminal stent placement for treatment of tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.

ANIMALS 75 dogs that underwent endoluminal placement of a self-expanding metallic stent to treat TC between September 2009 and August 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on dog characteristics, clinical signs, TC type, diagnostic test results, peri- and postoperative complications, and outcomes. Complication rates and survival times and rates were compared between various groups.

RESULTS The 75 dogs received 119 stents (56% [42/75] received 1 stent and 44% [33/75] received ≥ 2 stents). Thirty-eight (51%) dogs had a malformation type of TC, and 37 (49%) had the traditional type. Ninety-three percent (70/75) of dogs survived to hospital discharge. Median survival time was 1,005 days. Improvement in goose-honking or raspy breathing (89% [42/47]) and dyspnea (84% [43/51]) was reported at final follow-up examination. Major complications requiring additional stent placement procedures occurred in 47% (33/70) of dogs over the follow-up period; stent fracture and tissue ingrowth were the most common types. Male dogs and younger dogs had a significantly longer survival time than other dogs. Mainstem bronchial collapse at the time of stent placement had no significant association with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoluminal stent placement provided a high survival rate for dogs with TC, even those with severe clinical signs. This information, as well as the information on potential complications, should be useful for advising owners of affected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare electroretinographic (ERG) responses obtained in dogs before and after oral administration of gabapentin, trazodone, and a combination of both medications.


12 clinically normal dogs.


A short-protocol ERG with 20 minutes of dark adaption was recorded for all dogs to establish baseline ERG responses. Dogs then received gabapentin (approx 30 mg/kg), trazadone (approx 20 mg/kg or approx 5 mg/kg), or a combination of gabapentin (approx 20 mg/kg) and trazodone (approx 5 mg/kg) orally, and the same ERG protocol was repeated 2 hours later. Dogs were given a washout period of at least 1 week between treatments.


a-Wave amplitudes were significantly (P = 0.018) decreased after administration of the combination of gabapentin and trazodone. b-Wave amplitudes were significantly decreased after administration of the 20-mg/kg dose of trazodone (P = 0.006) and after administration of the combination of gabapentin and trazodone (P = 0.002). Heavier dogs that received higher total doses of trazodone had decreases in a-wave amplitude after administration of the 20-mg/kg dose of trazodone and in b-wave amplitude after administration of the 5-mg/kg dose of trazodone.


High doses of trazodone and the combination of gabapentin and trazodone significantly decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes in clinically normal dogs. However, the effects on retinal responses had little clinical importance. Therefore, these medications can be used safely in a clinical setting; however, further studies are needed in dogs with retinal disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research