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- Author or Editor: Nancy Stedman x
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Objective—To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice.
Animals—11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Procedures—Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination.
Results—For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean ± SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 ± 7 minutes and 6.8 ± 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.
A 19-year-old male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with inappetence and avoidant behavior.
Ultrasound revealed a large-volume left-sided pleural effusion, which was consistent with chronic nonchylous lymphatic effusion and mild chronic hemorrhage by cytology. Computed tomography identified ipsilateral rib fractures, atelectasis, nodular pleuritis, marginal lymph node enlargement, and suspected dilation of the thoracic duct and internal thoracic veins. Fifteen lipids were significantly higher in serum of the dolphin as compared with controls (n = 3) using nontargeted lipidomics.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A series of thoracentesis procedures were performed. Follow-up CT demonstrated marked reduction in pleural effusion with persistence of thoracic duct dilation and mass-like areas of pleural thickening. Ultrasonographic resolution of pleural effusion occurred 14 months after presentation; however, recrudescence was noted 5 months later. Over a total of 24 months, 21.52 L of pleural effusion was removed. Despite the presence of pleural effusion, the patient was clinically stable during this time and quality of life was considered good on the basis of continuous animal welfare evaluations. Humane euthanasia was elected following acute clinical decline 27 months after initial diagnosis. Necropsy confirmed severe pleural effusion, chronic severe pleural fibrosis with chronic hemorrhage, and mediastinal fibrosis with entrapped lymph nodes and thymic tissue.
Pleuritis and effusion were suspected sequelae of previous rib fractures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nonchylous lymphatic pleural effusion with repeated pleural drainage and diagnostic imaging for clinical management in a bottlenose dolphin.
Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in healthy green iguanas following PO and IV administration and assess potential toxicity.
Animals—21 healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Procedures—To assess pharmacokinetics, 13 iguanas were administered a single dose (0.2 mg/kg) of meloxicam PO and, 14 days later, the same dose IV. To assess potential toxicity, 4 iguanas were given meloxicam at a dosage of 1 or 5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 12 days, and results of histologic examination were compared with results for another 4 iguanas given a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg).
Results—There were no significant differences between PO and IV administration with regard to terminal half-life (mean ± SD, 12.96 ± 8.05 hours and 9.93 ± 4.92 hours, respectively), mean area under the curve to the last measured concentration (5.08 ± 1.62 μg•h/mL and 5.83 ± 2.49 μg•h/mL), volume of distribution (745 ± 475 mL/kg and 487 ± 266 mL/kg), or clearance (40.17 ± 10.35 mL/kg/h and 37.17 ± 16.08 mL/kg/h). Maximum plasma concentration was significantly greater following IV (0.63 ± 0.17 μg/mL) versus PO (0.19 ± 0.07 μg/mL) administration. Time from administration to maximum plasma concentration and mean residence time were significantly longer following PO versus IV administration. Daily administration of high doses (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 days did not induce any histologic changes in gastric, hepatic, or renal tissues.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV or PO in green iguanas would result in plasma concentrations > 0.1 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1277–1283)