An 8-year-old 6.8-kg neutered male Dachshund was presented for evaluation of vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and swelling over the right perineal region. The dog had a history of a bilateral perineal herniorrhaphy and castration 14 months prior to presentation.
Bilateral perineal hernias were confirmed by digital rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of intestine within the right hernia. Three days after admission to the hospital, the region of the right perineal hernia became painful, erythematous, and edematous. Computed tomography revealed jejunal incarceration within the right hernia with dilation of 1 jejunal segment that indicated intestinal obstruction.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, during which irreducible small intestinal incarceration was confirmed. Intra-abdominal jejunal resection and anastomosis was performed, and an approximately 13-cm-long section of the jejunum was resected. Bilateral perineal herniorrhaphies with internal obturator and superficial gluteal muscle transposition were performed. Six months after surgery, digital rectal examination of the dog revealed that the repair was intact. The dog had no perineal hernia–related clinical signs at the time of the recheck examination.
For the dog of the present report, surgical management of small intestinal strangulation associated with a perineal hernia was successful. Although a portion of the small intestines can frequently be found within perineal hernias in dogs, perineal hernia-related small intestinal strangulation has not been previously described, to the authors’ knowledge. Veterinarians and clients should be aware of this potential complication secondary to perineal hernia and be prepared to perform an abdominal surgical procedure to address small intestinal incarceration in affected dogs.
3 dogs were examined because of a sudden onset of signs of pain (1 dog) or paraparesis (2 dogs).
Neurologic findings consisted of myelopathy affecting the lumbar intumescence (1 dog) and T3-L3 myelopathy (2 dogs). In all dogs, MRI revealed spinal cord compression caused by L3-4 disk herniation. All dogs underwent routine surgical decompression of the intervertebral disk herniation. During MRI and decompressive surgery, physiologic variables were monitored. Immediately after surgery, all dogs were paraplegic with pelvic limb neurologic dysfunction consistent with myelopathy affecting the L4 through caudal spinal cord segments.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Within 24 hours after surgery, repeated MRI in all dogs revealed hyperintensity in the spinal cord gray matter of the lumbar intumescence on T2-weighted images. In the absence of neurologic improvement, dogs were euthanized at 3, 91, and 34 days after surgery. Postmortem microscopic examination of each dog's spinal cord at the lumbar intumescence revealed necrosis of the gray matter with relative white matter preservation suggestive of an ischemic injury.
Dramatic neurologic deterioration following decompressive surgery for intervertebral disk herniation in dogs may be associated with the development of poliomyelomalacia secondary to ischemia. In these 3 dogs, ischemia developed despite probable maintenance of normal spinal cord blood flow and perfusion during anesthesia. To exclude other causes, such as compression or hemorrhage, MRI was repeated and revealed hyperintensity of the spinal cord gray matter on T2-weighted images, which microscopically corresponded with ischemic neurons and neuronal loss.