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  • Author or Editor: Martin A. Suarez x
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SUMMARY

A nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test was developed to examine infection with the bovine lentivirus, bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (biv), in cattle. Primers were designed to amplify 2 separate regions of the pol and env segments of the biv genome. Two calves were experimentally infected with an isolate derived from the original strain of biv, R29, or with a recent field isolate, FL491. Serial blood samples were collected and examined by virus isolation, protein immunoblot, and nested pcr. The nested pcr test detected biv infection by 3 days after inoculation, earlier than the other 2 methods, and continued to identify infected cattle 9 to 15.5 months after inoculation, even when results from virus isolation and serology became negative. Nested pcr also detected multiple-size env products in samples obtained later in the infection from the calf that received FL491, giving evidence that viral quasispecies were selected during in vivo replication of the virus. Results indicated that the nested pcr test is more sensitive than virus isolation or serology for the detection of biv infection in cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine.

RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research