OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of application of an alcohol-based antiseptic (80% ethyl alcohol) hand rub (ABAHR) with that of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CGS2) for immediate reduction of the bacterial population on the skin of dogs.
ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs with no evidence of skin disease.
PROCEDURES On each dog, 2 areas of hair on the ventral aspect of the abdomen were clipped with a No. 40 blade and cleared of debris. A direct contact plate holding tryptic soy agar with polysorbate 80 and lecithin was gently pressed (for 2 seconds) on each skin site (preapplication sample). The CGS2 and ABAHR were each aseptically applied to 1 skin site on each dog. A direct contact plate was subsequently applied to each site in a similar manner (postapplication sample). All plates were cultured, and bacterial isolates were identified and quantified by the number of CFUs per plate.
RESULTS Application of the CGS2 and ABAHR significantly decreased skin bacterial colony counts, compared with findings for preapplication samples. The number of CFUs per plate or postapplication percentage reduction in CFUs per plate did not differ between treatments. There were no adverse skin reactions associated with either application.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that applications of ABAHR and CGS2 were equally effective at immediately reducing the bacterial population on the skin of dogs, and there was no significant difference in percentage reduction in colony counts between the 2 applications.
Objective—To evaluate histologic reactions to 8 suture materials and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) in the musculature and skin of ball pythons.
Animals—30 hatchling ball pythons.
Procedures—In each snake, ten 1-cm skin incisions were made (day 0). At 8 sites, a suture of 1 of 8 materials was placed in the epaxial musculature, and the incision was closed with the same material. One incision was closed by use of CTA. No suture material was placed in the tenth incision, which was allowed to heal by second intention (negative control). Snakes (n = 5/group) were euthanized for harvest of treatment-site tissues at days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Skin and muscle sections were examined microscopically and assigned a subjective score (0 to 4) for each of the following: overall severity of inflammation, fibrosis, number of macrophages, number of granulocytes, number of perivascular lymphocytes, and degree of suture fragmentation.
Results—Subjective score analysis revealed that CTA did not cause a significant inflammatory response, compared with the negative control. All suture materials caused significantly more inflammation over all time points; for all suture materials, inflammatory response scores were significantly higher than values for the negative control 90 days after implantation. No sutures were completely absorbed by the end of the study period, and several sutures appeared to be in the process of extrusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, CTA can be used to close small superficial incisions or lacerations with minimal inflammatory response, and sutures may undergo extrusion from tissues prior to complete absorption.