To analyze the results of transoral ventral bulla osteotomy (TOVBO) in cats.
13 client-owned cats treated by TOVBO between February 2016 and February 2019.
Medical records of cats with a diagnosis of middle ear disease (MED) that underwent TOVBO were reviewed. The procedure was similar to the one described for dogs. Short-term follow-up was obtained via clinical examination before discharge and at day 15 postoperatively. Long-term follow-up was performed via telephone interview.
13 cats (age range, 8 months to 12 years) underwent unilateral (n = 10) or bilateral (3) TOVBO (16) for the treatment of tympanic bulla (TB) infection (10), nasopharyngeal inflammatory polyps (5), or bullet retrieval from the TB (1). There were no intraoperative complications. One cat with a poor preoperative status died at postoperative day 3 from pneumonia. Eight cats experienced postoperative complications including head tilt (n = 2), Horner syndrome (3), loss of appetite (2), and temporary blindness (1). Collected samples confirmed the presence of nasopharyngeal inflammatory polyps (5), or otitis media (8). Six months after surgical intervention, 9 cats were free of MED signs.
This oral approach provided a good access to the TB in all cases. The complications observed after TOVBO were similar to those for VBO. In cats, TOVBO seems to be an acceptable and safe minimally invasive alternative to the other approaches of the TB to address MED.
Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.
10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.
The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.
IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.
IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.