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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether prevalence of naturally developing chronic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs in Texas changed between 1987 and 1996 and to characterize clinical aspects of the disease.


Retrospective study.


11 dogs with chronic infection with T cruzi.


Number of positive serologic test results for T cruzi obtained between 1987 and 1996 were compared with the number of tests for T cruzi performed during the same period. Survival time, signalment, and clinical signs of dogs and results of thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were evaluated. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the association between age at time of initial examination and survival time.


The proportion of positive test results increased, compared with the number of tests submitted, during the 9-year period. Clinical signs in affected dogs were consistent with right-sided cardiac disease. Results of thoracic radiography were nonspecific. Conduction disturbances and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias were evident. Echocardiographic abnormalities, including chamber enlargement and functional impairment, were detected. Dogs were characterized on the basis of survival time; group-1 dogs (n = 6) survived 0 to 5 months, and group-2 dogs (5) survived 31 to 60 months. Age at time of initial examination was associated with survival time.

Clinical Implications—

Clinical course of disease varied. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes may be detected. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for T cruzi infection in dogs with clinical signs of right-sided cardiac dysfunction and unexplained conduction disturbances and arrhythmias. Prevalence of this disease may be increasing in some regions of Texas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:497-500)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the rate of complications associated with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and examine whether cat characteristics or surgeon experience level were associated with complications.


15,927 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018.


Data were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Complications were coded by a veterinarian blinded to surgeon experience level. Complications (pedicle drop or tear, pedicle hemorrhage, and pedicle-related death) were summarized as counts and percentages. Univariate associations between cat characteristics (eg, age, weight, reproductive status, and ownership) and surgeon experience level (clinic veterinarian vs training veterinarian or veterinary student) and each outcome were estimated separately for veterinarian and student training clinics.


A pedicle drop or tear occurred in 0.3% (n = 49) of cats and was significantly more likely among veterinary students. Most (41/49 [84%]) pedicle drops and tears did not result in hemorrhage. Only 19 of 15,927 (0.12%) cats had pedicle-related hemorrhage, and in all instances, hemorrhage was corrected intraoperatively without serious complication or death. Cat characteristics and surgeon experience level were not related to pedicle hemorrhage.


Results support previous evidence that the ovarian pedicle tie procedure is safe in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy when performed by experienced surgeons or novice surgeons under supervision. Given the reduced anesthetic time associated with the procedure, the ovarian pedicle tie should be considered an acceptable standard practice in all practice settings.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution used for emesis in dogs.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—147 dogs that received apomorphine (IV or placed in the conjunctival sac) or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution (PO) to induce emesis after exposure to toxic agents.

Procedures—Data regarding signalment; agent information; type, dose, route, and number of emetic administrations; whether emesis was successful; number of times emesis occurred; percentage of ingested agent recovered; and adverse effects were collected via telephone during American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center operations and stored in a database for analysis. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate emetic success rates.

Results—Apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution successfully induced emesis in 59 of 63 (94%) and 76 of 84 (90%) of dogs, respectively. Mean time to onset of emesis after the first dose of emetic was 14.5 and 18.6 minutes when hydrogen peroxide (n = 37) and apomorphine (31) were used, respectively, with mean durations of 42 and 27 minutes, respectively. Mean estimates for recovery of ingested agents were 48% for hydrogen peroxide and 52% for apomorphine. Adverse effects were reported in 16 of 112 (14%) dogs for which information was available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—3% hydrogen peroxide solution and apomorphine effectively induced emesis in dogs when used as directed. Emesis occurred within minutes after administration and helped recover substantial amounts of ingested agents. Adverse effects of both emetics were considered mild and self-limiting.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the frequency, types, and severity of clinical signs; geographic distribution; and treatment information associated with toxicosis caused by 100% tea tree oil (TTO) in dogs and cats in the United States and Canada.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—337 dogs and 106 cats with evidence of exposure to 100% TTO.

Procedures—10-year incident data were retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center database from January 2002 to December 2012. Only evidenced or witnessed incidents assessed as toxicosis or suspected toxicosis were included. Signalment, amount of TTO used, intention of use, and outcome information were evaluated. Severity of illness and correlations with breed, sex, age, and weight were determined.

Results—TTO was intentionally used in 395 of 443 (89%) animals. The amount used ranged from 0.1 to 85 mL. Incidents were reported from 41 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 Canadian provinces. Exposure route was cutaneous in 221 (50%) animals, cutaneous and oral in 133 (30%), and oral in 67 (15%). Clinical signs developed within 2 to 12 hours and lasted up to 72 hours. The most common signs were increased salivation or drooling, signs of CNS depression or lethargy, paresis, ataxia, and tremors. A significant association with severity of illness was found for age and weight, with higher prevalence of major illness in younger and smaller cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intentional or accidental use of 100% TTO in dogs or cats caused serious signs of CNS depression, paresis, ataxia, or tremors within hours after exposure and lasting up to 3 days. Younger cats and those with lighter body weight were at greater risk of developing major illness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination against FIV on results of serologic assays for FIV infection.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—26 specific-pathogen-free cats, 102 laboratory- reared cats (42 unvaccinated and uninfected, 41 vaccinated and uninfected, and 19 infected with FIV), and 22 client-owned cats infected with FIV.

Procedure—To determine the onset and duration of anti-FIV antibody production in cats following vaccination with a whole-virus vaccine, serum was obtained from the 26 specific-pathogen-free cats prior to vaccination and weekly for 10 weeks, then monthly for 52 weeks, after vaccination; serum was tested for anti-FIV antibodies with lateral flow and microwell plate ELISAs. To determine the diagnostic performance of serologic assays for FIV infection, plasma from uninfected, unvaccinated cats; uninfected, vaccinated cats; and FIV-infected cats was tested for FIV antibodies with the 2 ELISAs, a western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence antibody assay and for FIV antigen with an ELISA.

Results—Anti-FIV antibodies were detected in all 26 vaccinated cats 1 year after vaccination. Sensitivity of the antibody assays for FIV infection was high (98% to 100%). Specificity was high in unvaccinated cats (90% to 100%) but poor in vaccinated cats (0% to 54%). None of the vaccinated or infected cats had detectable FIV antigen in plasma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that vaccination against FIV causes false-positive results for at least 1 year with currently available serologic assays for FIV infection. Negative FIV antibody assay results are highly reliable for detection of uninfected cats, but positive results should be interpreted with caution. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1558–1561)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association