Objective—To determine the prevalence of infections
developing postoperatively, document the contribution
of infection to increased risk of death, and identify risk
factors associated with the development of infectious
complications in cats after renal transplantation.
Animals—169 cats that received renal allograft transplants.
Procedures—Medical records of cats receiving renal
transplants at the University of California from January
1987 through December 2003 were reviewed.
Results—47 infections developed in 43 of 169 cats.
Bacterial infections were most common (25/47 cats),
followed by viral (13/47), fungal (6/47), and protozoal
(3/47) infections. The median duration from transplant
surgery to development of infection was 2.5 months.
Infection was the second most common cause of
death after acute rejection of the transplant, accounting
for 14% of deaths overall. Cats with concurrent
diabetes mellitus had a significantly increased risk of
developing an infection after renal transplantation.
Sex, increasing age, concurrent neoplasia, and previous
treatment for transplant rejection were not associated
with development of infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection was
a common complication and an important cause of
death or euthanasia in cats after renal transplantation.
Development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation
significantly increased the risk of infection. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:948–953)