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  • Author or Editor: Luisito S. Pablo x
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Objective—To compare the time to desaturation in healthy dogs that breathed oxygen or room air for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine maleate. Dogs received a 3-minute treatment of room air or oxygen (100 mL/kg/min) via face mask. Arterial blood samples were collected before and after treatment to determine PaCO 2, PaO 2, pH, and SaO 2; propofol (6 mg/kg, IV) was injected during a 7-second period, and the dogs were intubated. A lingual pulse oximeter probe was placed. Dogs remained disconnected from the breathing circuit until SpO 2 equaled 90% (desaturation point) and then connected and ventilated until the SpO 2 was ≥ 97%. Arterial blood samples were collected and SpO 2 was recorded every 30 seconds for 4 minutes and then every minute until the desaturation point. Times to first breath and the desaturation point were recorded. Data were collected at 0, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 seconds.

Results—Mean ± SEM time to desaturation differed significantly between dogs treated with room air (69.6 ± 10.6 seconds) and oxygen (297.8 ± 42.0 seconds). Lowest mean PaO 2 and SaO 2 when dogs were breathing room air were 62 ± 6.3 mm Hg and 82.3 ± 4%, respectively, at 30 seconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoxygenation for 3 minutes increased the time to desaturation in healthy dogs sedated with acepromazine and morphine in which anesthesia was induced with propofol.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of propofol required for induction of anesthesia in goats and the frequency of myoclonic activity and apnea associated with propofol administration.


Clinical trial.


28 healthy mature goats.


ED50 was determined by use of the up-and-down method. The first goat was given 4 mg of propofol/kg (1.8 mg/lb) of body weight, IV. Dose was increased by 25% for the next goat if endotracheal intubation was not possible and decreased by 20% if it was. For each subsequent goat, dose was determined on the basis of response of the previous goat. The ED50 was calculated by use of probit analysis. Induction time, frequency and duration of apnea, frequency of myoclonus, and other adverse effects were recorded.


ED50 was determined to be 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb). Mean (± SD) induction time was 23.2 ± 4.7 seconds. Apnea was observed in 27 of 28 goats; mean (± SD) duration of apnea was 72.9 ± 38.3 seconds. Dose did not correlate with duration of apnea. Myoclonic activity was observed in 16 of 28 goats; frequency of myoclonus was not associated with dose. Cyanosis, regurgitation, and signs of pain during injection were not observed.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of propofol at 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb), IV, should permit endotracheal intubation in half of unpremedicated, healthy, mature goats. Myoclonus and apnea were associated with propofol administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:86–88)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



This study aimed to compare the effects of low-dose subarachnoid injections of 2% lidocaine (LIDO) and 0.5% bupivacaine (BUPI) in goats.


6 healthy, privately owned female goats.


In this randomized blind crossover clinical trial, each goat received 0.05 mL/kg−1 of LIDO, BUPI, or sterile saline solution into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space, with a seven-day washout. Cardiorespiratory variables, rectal temperature, and somatosensory (pinprick) and motor (ataxia) functions were recorded at baseline (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after injection, then every 20 minutes until the goat was standing and able to walk. Time to regain somatosensory and motor functions was compared between treatments using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards model. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare cardiorespiratory variables between treatments and over time. A P value ≤ .05 was considered significant.


Somatosensory recovery was longer with BUPI, though not statistically significant. The median time to stand was 50 (50, 67) minutes after LIDO injection and 104 (101, 156) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). The median time to walk was 72 (54, 85) minutes after LIDO versus 225 (220, 245) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). Cardiovascular and respiratory variables showed no significant differences between treatments.


Despite prolonged ataxia with BUPI, pinprick sensation recovery did not differ. At reduced doses, both LIDO and BUPI are deemed acceptable for short procedures of the flank, pelvic limb, or tail in healthy goats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



Sedative, cardiorespiratory, and analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine (40 µg/kg of body weight)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) and medetomidine (10 µg/kg)-butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) combinations were compared. Additional evaluations were done on reversal of medetomidine, using atipamezole (200 µ g/kg, IV), after 90 minutes of medetomidine-induced sedation.


Crossover study, with each dog receiving each drug combination at 1-week intervals.


Six 2-year-old English hound-type dogs.


Arterial blood pressure, ECG, respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, arterial blood gas tensions, and serum biochemical variables were measured before, during, and after sedation. Analgesia was evaluated by needle prick on the skin and tail clamp.


Heart rate decreased significantly from 100 beats/mm to <40 beats/min within 3 minutes of injection of medetomidine and medetomidine. and butorphanol (MB). Mean arterial blood pressure in both groups were maintained above 100 mm of Hg throughout the recording period. There was no significant difference between medetomidine and MB in respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. Hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm of Hg) was observed at 10 and 20 minutes in 2 dogs given MB. Atipamezole administration in the dogs given medetomidine significantly increased PaO2 and returned the values to baseline. Needle prick analgesia duration was longer in the medetomidine (80 ± 7.7 minutes) than MB (56.0 ± 19.2 minutes) group. Tail pinch analgesia was variable in both groups. Duration of lateral recumbency was longer after medetomidine (90 ± 0 minutes) than MB (73.5 ± 19.0 minutes).


Medetomidine and MB were effective combinations for mildly invasive procedures.

Clinical Relevance

MB induced a shorter period of analgesia and recumbency than did medetomidine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:535–540)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research