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  • Author or Editor: Luis A. Lopez x
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Objective—To determine the quality and speed of recovery from anesthesia with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane and determine end-tidal inhalant concentration at certain events during recovery in healthy dogs.

Animals—11 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV), and dogs were assigned by use of a crossover design to receive isoflurane at 2.0%, sevoflurane at 3.2%, or desflurane at 11% end-tidal concentrations. Direct blood pressure was monitored throughout the 120 minutes of anesthesia. At the end of anesthesia, the circuit was flushed with oxygen, and the time to specific events in recovery and overall quality of recovery were assessed. Blood gas concentrations were measured prior to anesthesia and after recovery.

Results—Dogs in the desflurane group had the shortest time to standing (11.7 ± 5.1 minutes), followed by dogs in the sevoflurane group (18.6 ± 7.5 minutes) and dogs in the isoflurane group (26.3 ± 7.2 minutes). There was no difference for recovery quality among groups. Arterial blood pressure was higher in the sevoflurane group than in the desflurane group at 10 and 15 minutes and in the isoflurane group at 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 105, and 120 minutes. There were no significant differences among groups with respect to blood gas concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs for which a short interval to standing is desired, desflurane is the best selection, followed by sevoflurane.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of duration and type of anesthetic on tear production in dogs.

Animals—8 female Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog was randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups according to a Latin square design to receive anesthesia as follows: 1 hour with isoflurane, 1 hour with desflurane, 4 hours with isoflurane, and 4 hours with desflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with the selected inhalant 4 times during a 4-week period, with at least 5 days separating anesthetic episodes. Aqueous tear production was measured via the Schirmer I tear test at baseline and 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour after induction of anesthesia as well as 2, 3, and 4 hours after induction for the 4-hour groups. Tear production was also measured after the dogs were standing after recovery from anesthesia and 2, 10, and 22 hours after recovery from anesthesia.

Results—Aqueous tear production was significantly reduced in dogs during anesthesia and returned to baseline values immediately after recovery and until 10 hours after anesthesia in all treatment groups. Inhalant type and duration had no significant effect. Neither lateral recumbency nor left versus right eyes had a significant effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that inhalant anesthetics did not reduce tear production after anesthesia and that longer-duration anesthesia did not cause decreased tear production, compared with shorter-duration anesthesia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research