Objective—To evaluate records of racehorses with palmar carpal osteochondral fragments and determine whether the fragments were indicators of the severity of pathologic joint changes or prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records, radiographs, and videos of arthroscopic procedures were reviewed. Information gathered included signalment; location, number, and size of the primary lesion; number and size of palmar carpal fragments; and details pertaining to surgical procedures. Outcome variables were obtained from race records.
Results—31 horses met the selection criteria. Multiple palmar fragments were diagnosed in 58% of horses; small fragments (< 3 mm in diameter) were most common (52% of horses). Fifty-two percent of the horses returned to racing, 48% returned to racing and earned money, and 32% had at least 5 more starts. Horses with multiple fragments had significantly less earnings per start and lower performance index values after surgery than those with 1 fragment. Horses with palmar fragments < 3 mm in diameter were significantly less likely to return to racing and have 5 starts or to win money after surgery than horses with larger fragments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Palmar carpal osteochondral fragments can be used as an indicator of clinically important joint pathology and as a prognostic indicator in racehorses. Horses with multiple small fragments were less likely to successfully return to racing than horses with only dorsally located carpal fragments or horses with 1 or 2 large palmar fragments. When possible, removal of palmar carpal osteochondral fragments should be considered.
Case Description—5 dogs, 1 goat, and 1 horse underwent percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies between 2002 and 2007.
Clinical Findings—Foreign bodies were IV catheters in 4 dogs, the horse, and the goat and a piece of a balloon valvuloplasty catheter in 1 dog. Location of the foreign bodies included the main pulmonary artery (1 dog), a branch of a pulmonary artery (4 dogs), the right ventricle (the goat), and a jugular vein (the horse).
Treatment and Outcome—The procedure of percutaneous endovascular retrieval of the foreign body was easy to perform in all instances. One dog was euthanized 41 days after retrieval because of worsening of another disease process, and 1 dog had abnormal neurologic signs secondary to a brain mass. All other animals were clinically normal during the follow-up period (follow-up duration, 3 to 57 months). None of the animals developed long-term complications secondary to the foreign body retrieval procedure.
Clinical Relevance—Intravascular foreign bodies that result from catheters or devices used during minimally invasive techniques are rare but may cause substantial morbidity. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies was easily and safely performed in the 7 animals reported here. Use of percutaneous endovascular retrieval techniques should be considered for treatment of animals with intravascular foreign bodies because morbidity can be substantially decreased; however, proper selection of patients for the procedure is necessary.
Objective—To determine signalment, clinical findings,
results of diagnostic testing, outcome, and postmortem
findings in horses with West Nile virus
Animals—46 horses with WNV encephalomyelitis.
Procedure—Clinical data were extracted from medical
records of affected horses.
Results—On the basis of clinical signs and results of
serologic testing, WNV encephalomyelitis was diagnosed
in 46 of 56 horses with CNS signs. Significantly
more males than females were affected. Increased
rectal temperature, weakness or ataxia, and muscle
fasciculations were the most common clinical signs.
Paresis was more common than ataxia, although both
could be asymmetrical and multifocal. Supportive
treatment included anti-inflammatory medications,
fluids, antimicrobials, and slinging of recumbent horses.
Results of the IgM capture ELISA and the plaque
reduction neutralization test provided a diagnosis in
43 horses, and only results of the plaque reduction
neutralization test were positive in 3 horses. Mortality
rate was 30%, and 71% of recumbent horses were
euthanatized. One horse that had received 2 vaccinations
for WNV developed the disease and was euthanatized.
Follow-up communications with 19 owners
revealed that most horses had residual deficits at 1
month after release from the hospital; abnormalities
were resolved in all but 2 horses by 12 months after
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings
were similar to those of previous WNV outbreaks in
horses but provided additional clinical details from
monitored hospitalized horses. Diagnostic testing is
essential to diagnosis, treatment is supportive, and
recovery rate of discharged ambulatory horses is
< 100%. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1241–1247)