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To determine the 50% effective dose (ED50) of intravenous propofol required for successfully preventing tracheal intubation response in Beagles co-induced with dexmedetomidine.
36 adult male Beagles
The dogs were randomly assigned to either group D1, group D2, or group C (received 1 µg/kg, 2 µg/kg dexmedetomidine intravenously, or the same amount of normal saline as dexmedetomidine, 10 mL). The first dog in each group received 6 mg/kg of propofol for induction. The pump speed of propofol was 600 mL/h. The dosage varied with increments or decrements of 0.5 mg/kg based on the Dixon up-and-down method. The duration of eye-opening after propofol administration was recorded. Changes in heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were recorded at 5 timepoints: after entering the operation room and prior to propofol administration (T1), 1 and 3 min after propofol administration (T2 and T3), 3 and 5 min after intubation (T4 and T5).
The required ED50 of propofol that prevented tracheal intubation response in D1, D2, and C groups were 6.4 mg/kg (95% CI, 6.1 to 6.7 mg/kg), 5.8 mg/kg (95% CI, 5.67 to 6 mg/kg), and 8.3 mg/kg (95% CI, 8 to 8.5 mg/kg), respectively. The recovery time of group D2 was significantly longer than that of groups D1 and C (P < .05). The differences in HR among the 3 groups were significant from T2 up to T5 timepoint (P < .05). The differences in RR among the 3 groups were significant at T2 and T3 timepoints (P < .05).
Dexmedetomidine pre-injection reduces the amount of propofol required for endotracheal intubation response in Beagles, thereby reducing the respiratory inhibition induced by propofol.
Objective—To evaluate the changes in concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the precorneal tear film of dogs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa–associated keratitis during corneal healing and stromal remodeling.
Animals—10 dogs with unilateral P aeruginosa–associated keratitis and 10 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Precorneal tear film samples were collected from both eyes of 10 dogs with unilateral P aeruginosa–associated keratitis on the day of admission to the hospital and then at various time points until complete healing of the cornea was achieved. Precorneal tear film samples were also collected from both eyes of 10 clinically normal adult dogs (control group). Concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in precorneal tear film samples from each group were determined via gelatin zymography for comparison.
Results—The proteolytic processes in the ulcerated eyes decreased as corneal healing progressed. On the day of admission, concentrations of latent and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ulcerated eyes were significantly higher than values in the contralateral unaffected eyes in dogs with P aeruginosa–associated keratitis; concentrations of latent MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also greater than control group values. Concentrations of latent and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the healed eyes of dogs with P aeruginosa–associated keratitis were significantly lower than concentrations in the ulcerated eyes on the day of admission.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that reduction of precorneal tear film concentrations of MMPs by use of proteinase inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of dogs with P aeruginosa–associated keratitis.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma suis infection in swine, swine-farm workers, and swine veterinarians in Shanghai, China.
Sample Population—172 swine and 65 workers and veterinarians from 19 commercial swine farms.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from all study subjects. Blood samples were examined for the presence of M suis by means of compound and scanning electron microscopy. A species-specific PCR assay was developed for detection of M suis DNA extracted from blood samples. Relationships between infection status of swine and sex, age, geographic location, and clinical signs of disease were evaluated by use of a C2 test. The phylogenetic relationship between partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from swine and human isolates of M suis was determined.
Results—86% (148/172) of swine and 49% (32/65) of humans had positive PCR assay results for M suis infection. Swine infection status was not associated with any variable, with the exception of pyrexia and subcutaneous bleeding. The partial 16S rRNA sequences from human and swine isolates of M suis were 98% homologous and in the same phylogenetic cluster as a previously identified swine isolate of M suis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A large proportion of swine and humans in close contact with those swine were infected with M suis in Shanghai, China. The close phylogenetic relationship between swine and human isolates of M suis suggested possible interspecies transmission; however, additional research is required to better assess that possibility.