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  • Author or Editor: Leandro Z. Crivellenti x
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OBJECTIVE To identify factors affecting the diagnostic quality of core needle renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 522 client-owned dogs with suspected kidney disease for which core needle renal biopsy specimens (n = 1,089) were submitted to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service for evaluation and inclusion in their database.

PROCEDURES Data regarding dog signalment, clinical variables, biopsy method, needle brand and gauge, biopsy results, and other variables were extracted from the database. Variables were tested for association with 3 outcomes of light microscopic evaluation of core specimens: number of glomeruli per core specimen, obtainment of < 10 glomeruli, and presence or absence of renal medullary tissue.

RESULTS Number of glomeruli per core specimen was significantly associated with needle gauge, dog age, serum creatinine concentration, and degree of proteinuria, whereas biopsy method and submitting hospital were significantly associated with the presence of renal medullary tissue in specimens. Mean numbers of glomeruli per core specimen obtained with 14- or 16-gauge needles were similar, but both were significantly greater than the mean number obtained with 18-gauge needles. Needle gauge had a similar association with the likelihood of obtaining < 10 glomeruli in a core specimen. Specimens obtained via laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches more commonly contained medullary tissue than those obtained by ultrasound-guided approaches.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, findings suggested that ultrasound-guided biopsy with a 16-gauge needle should maximize the diagnostic quality of renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease, while avoiding potential adverse effects caused by larger needles.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



Compare erythropoiesis-related factors between different stages of canine chronic kidney disease (CKD).


8 healthy adult dogs (controls), and 24 dogs with CKD, equally divided into 3 groups based on International Renal Interest Society-CKD Guidelines (stage 2, 3, and 4) were recruited between December 2012 and December 2014.


The following were assessed in all dogs and then compared between groups: bone marrow cytology, CBC, reticulocyte count, urinalysis, serum biochemistry, blood pressure, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythropoietin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interferon-γ.


Erythropoiesis inducing and suppressing factors and the results of the bone marrow cytology of dogs in stage 2 CKD did not differ from the control group. The presence of reticulocytosis in CKD stage 2 suggests that blood loss or erythrocyte destruction might be contributing to developing anemia. Anemia in dogs with progressive CKD was associated with increasing PTH and TNFα and with elevation of the ratio of myeloid to erythroid precursor cells caused by hypoplasia of the erythroid series. The latter was represented mainly by a decrease in the population of polychromatophilic rubricytes and metarubricytes.


Increased PTH and TNFα seem to contribute to the reduced percentage of polychromatophilic rubricytes and erythroid population, thereby aggravating the anemia of dogs with advanced CKD. Gastrointestinal blood loss contributes to anemia in all canine CKD stages.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research