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Summary

Pseudorabies (pr) outbreak-investigation forms from 10 states having the most pr-infected herds were evaluated for agreement in question response-data type, information intent, and outbreak information categories. A question randomly selected from an investigation form had 0.6304 probability of being unique to a single state, and 0.0062 probability of being common to all states. Analysis of outbreak forms, on the basis of information intent, revealed that the probability of a randomly selected question being derived from an information category unique to a single state was 0.0323, whereas the probability of a question being derived from an information category shared by all states was 0.1935. A telephone survey revealed that state pr control officials did not believe additional research on between-herd spread of pr was necessary to successfully complete the eradication program. However, officials believed a better understanding of pr risk factors would enhance program effectiveness and build producer confidence.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Lack of a standardized information technology management strategy has resulted in state and federal information systems evolving separately, rather than in tandem. Absence of an information management strategy will eventually affect regulatory program management, epidemiologic research, and domestic and international livestock trade. Producers will ultimately pay the price for the lack of regulatory coordination of US animal health and disease information. The longer the development of state and federal information technology management strategies is postponed, the more cost-, labor-, and time-intensive correcting the deficiency will be. Development of a national information resources management environment is the first step in constructing state and federal information technology strategies.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

A stratified random sample of 50 Ohio dairy herds, monitored for 1 year between March 1988 and May 1989, was used to estimate the component costs of clinical mastitis per cow-year overall and by organism, the component costs of an episode of clinical mastitis overall and by organism, and the incidence of clinical mastitis by organism. Each herd was visited monthly by a veterinarian who conducted on-farm interviews and completed standardized data-collection forms designed to elicit economic information about the on-farm costs of clinical mastitis and mastitis prevention. Producers collected milk samples prior to treatment of clinical mastitis cases. Culturing methods allowed identification of 18 specific mastitis pathogen classifications. Annual costs estimated were on a per cow-year and clinical episode basis. The monthly mean population of cows monitored was 4,068. Mastitis prevention cost $14.50/cow-year, whereas the cost incurred by producers because of clinical cases of mastitis was $37.91. Organisms prevalent in the cows’ environment caused the most costly types of mastitis. Disregarding contaminated samples and episodes for which no milk samples were taken, mastitis for which 2 organisms were isolated accounted for 35.5% of costs of clinical mastitis, followed by cases for which Escherichia coli (21.3%) was isolated, cases for which culturing yielded no growth (8.6%), and cases for which esculin-positive Streptococcus spp (6.4%), Klebsiella spp (5.7%), esculin-negative CAMP-negative Streptococcus spp (5.1%), Enterobacter spp (4.8%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (4.1%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp (3.0%), S agalactiae (2.5%), and Bacillus spp (1.2%) were isolated. Other categories of classification each accounted for < 0.5% of costs. Mean cost per clinical episode was $107.11. Mean incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.74 cases/100 cowyears. Mixed infections had the highest incidence (mean, 4.80 cases/100 cow-years), followed by cases with no growth (2.96), E coli (2.10), esculin-positive Streptococcus spp (1.94), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (1.60), esculin-negative CAMP-negative Streptococcus spp (1.25), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp (1.04), Enterobacter spp (0.36), and Klebsiella spp (0.27).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To estimate herd prevalence of Salmonella spp, fecal specimens were obtained for culture from neonatal calves of 47 Ohio dairy herds. Of the 452 calves tested, 10 calves from 7 farms were culturepositive. Salmonella serotypes isolated were S dublin, S typhimurium, S enteritidis, S agona, S mbandaka, and S montevideo. Bulk tank milk filters from these dairies were also submitted for culture. Salmonella sp was isolated from 1 of the 50 filters, and 2 calves from this herd were found to be shedding Salmonella sp of the same serotype.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-eight herds participating in the 1988/1989 Ohio National Animal Health Monitoring System dairy project were monitored for 1 year to determine the effects of environment and management on mortality in preweaned calves. Environmental factors were evaluated by veterinarians during monthly visits to the herds. Management procedures were measured through the use of a questionnaire administered near the end of the project. Mortality in preweaned calves was calculated for each herd by using data from project records on calf mortality and animal inventory, which were collected monthly by veterinarians. Relationships between the management/environment variables and calf mortality were examined by use of analysis of covariance. Herd size, days on a nipple feeder, navel disinfection, type of housing, and whether each calf observed with diarrhea was treated with antibiotics were the variables that had an impact on herd mortality. These variables explained approximately 39% of the variation in mortality among herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Dairy herds in Ohio were selected by stratified random sampling for participation in a disease-monitoring study to relate Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary prevalence to herd management and environmental conditions. Of 48 herds studied, 27 herds had at least 1 cow infected with this pathogen. Management and environmental conditions were assessed by direct observation as well as by an interview with the dairy producers. One-way anova or χ2 analysis, with presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae as the dependent variable, was used to test each of 70 independent variables. Variables found significant at P < 0.20 were further evaluated by use of logistic regression. Our sample size permitted only 4 independent variables to be simultaneously evaluated by logistic regression. The most predictive risk factors were identified as poor teat and udder hygiene, poor environmental sanitation, large herd population, and use of a shared washcloth for premilking cleaning of teats and udders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

A cross-sectional study of 1,032 dairy herds in Ohio was conducted to determine the prevalence of the major contagious pathogens of mastitis (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) and the use of common mastitis control measures.

Herd owners were surveyed by mail concerning their use of mastitis control measures. The survey focused on treatment of nonlactating cows, postmilking teat dipping, culling practices, milking machine maintenance, treatment for clinical mastitis, and premilking hygiene practices. Nearly 90% of questionnaires were returned.

The prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus was determined by use of bulk-tank milk samples. Most herds (n = 802) met the criteria for classification into 1 of 4 groups: (1) Free of contagious pathogens, as determined by inability to isolate coagulase positive staphylococci (cps) and esculin-negative camp positive streptococci (encps) from 3 bulk-tank milk samples, (2) cps, but not encps, isolated from at least 1 sample (3) encps, but not cps, isolated from at least 1 sample, (4) both encps and cps isolated from at least 1 sample. The number of herds in which both encps and cps were isolated was low; therefore, these herds were grouped with herds in which encps alone was isolated for the evaluation of mastitis control practices related to herd pathogen status.

Herd somatic cell count (scc) was determined using Dairy Herd Improvement Association data by calculating the geometric mean scc from individual cow test day scc. Twelve months of scc data from 741 herds were included in this study.

Contagious pathogens were not isolated from bulk-tank milk from most herds, nevertheless cps was isolated from bulk-tank milk from a large proportion of herds (45.4%, 364/802). From the mail survey, it was determined that a high proportion of herd managers teat dipped all cows after milking (90.5%, 838/926) and treated all nonlactating cows (83.8%, 776/926). The other mastitis control practices were not as widely adopted in this group of dairy managers. When the adoption of mastitis control practices were related to the results of the bulk-tank survey, numerous groups of herds could be identified. Group-1 had the highest proportion of herds adopting the surveyed practices, groups 3 and 4 represented the lowest proportion of herds in which all the surveyed practices were adopted, and group 2 had essentially the same profile for adoption of the surveyed practices as group 1. This latter observation in conjunction with the observation that groups 1 and 2 had similar distributions of herd scc suggested that the role of the mastitis control program surveyed in our study may be to control the impact of cps, but it may not be effective in eliminating cps. Another trend was that managers of herds without contagious pathogens were more likely to use a teat dip prior to milking than farms with either contagious pathogen, and this was the 1 management variable that distinguished herds without contagious pathogens from herds with cps.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association