Objective—To evaluate predictor variables for and complications associated with Streptococcus equi subsp equi infection (strangles) in horses.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—108 horses with strangles (cases) and 215 horses without strangles (controls).
Procedures—Medical records from January 2005 through July 2012 were reviewed. Cases were defined as horses with clinical signs of strangles (pyrexia, retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy, and mucopurulent nasal discharge) that were associated with a confirmed strangles outbreak or had positive results for S equi on PCR assay or bacteriologic culture. Controls were defined as horses with pyrexia that did not meet the other criteria for cases. Data compared between cases and controls included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, and disease complications and outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with strangles and its complications.
Results—Clinical signs of strangles were not evident in 12 of 25 cases classified as S equi carriers (infected > 40 days). Predictor variables associated with strangles included mucopurulent nasal discharge and external abscesses in the pharyngeal region. Strangles was more likely to be diagnosed in the spring than in the summer. Cases with anemia were more likely to develop purpura hemorrhagica than were cases without anemia. No risk factors were identified for the development of guttural pouch empyema or metastatic abscesses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that not all horses infected with S equi develop clinical signs of strangles. We recommend that guttural pouch endoscopy and lavage with PCR assay of lavage fluid samples be performed to identify S equi carrier horses.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) with positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEPs) in anesthetized horses ventilated with oxygen or heliox (70% helium and 30% oxygen).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Volume-controlled ventilation was performed with heliox or oxygen (fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2] > 90%). Sixty minutes after mechanical ventilation commenced, an ARM with PEEP (0 to 30 cm H2O in steps of 5 cm H2O every 5 minutes, followed by incremental steps back to 0 cm H2O) was performed. Peak inspiratory pressure, dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), and Pao2 were measured during each PEEP. Indices of pulmonary oxygen exchange and alveolar dead space were calculated. Variables were compared with baseline values (PEEP, 0 cm H2O) and between ventilation gases by use of repeated-measures ANOVAs.
RESULTS For both ventilation gases, ARM significantly increased pulmonary oxygen exchange indices and Cdyn. Mean ± SD Cdyn (506 ± 35 mL/cm H2O) and Pao2-to-Fio2 ratio (439 ± 36) were significantly higher and alveolar-arterial difference in Pao2 (38 ± 11 mm Hg) was significantly lower for heliox, compared with values for oxygen (357 ± 50 mL/cm H2O, 380 ± 92, and 266 ± 88 mm Hg, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE An ARM in isoflurane-anesthetized horses ventilated with heliox significantly improved pulmonary oxygen exchange and respiratory mechanics by decreasing resistive properties of the respiratory system and reducing turbulent gas flow in small airways.
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane (MACDES) and effects on cardiovascular variables in positive-pressure ventilated sheep.
ANIMALS 13 adult female sheep.
PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with desflurane. After a 30-minute equilibration at an end-tidal concentration of desflurane (etDES) of 10.5%, an electrical stimulus (5 Hz/ms and 50 mA) was applied for 1 minute or until gross purposeful movement occurred. The etDES was then changed by 0.5% (modified up-down method), depending on whether a positive motor response had been elicited, and stimulation was repeated. The MACDES was the etDES midway between a positive and negative response. After MACDES was determined, etDES was increased to 1.3 and 1.6 MACDES. Animals were allowed to equilibrate for 15 minutes, and cardiovascular, blood gas, acid-base, and hematologic variables were measured. Times to induction of anesthesia, extubation, attainment of sternal position, and standing and duration of anesthesia were recorded.
RESULTS Mean ± SD MACDES was 9.81 ± 0.79%. Times to intubation, extubation, and standing were 4.81 ± 2.21 minutes, 14.09 ± 4.05 minutes, and 32.4 ± 12.5 minutes, respectively. Duration of anesthesia was 226 ± 22 minutes. Heart rate increased significantly at induction of anesthesia but otherwise remained at preanesthetic rates. Arterial blood pressures progressively decreased with increasing etDES; pressures increased slightly only in response to noxious stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The MACDES determined here compared favorably with that determined for other sheep populations and indicated similar anesthetic potency as in other species. Desflurane caused dose-dependent arterial hypotension, which indicated the need for careful blood pressure monitoring.