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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


An episode of pulmonary arteritis and sclerosis in twenty 5- to 6-month-old dairy calves was investigated. Sixteen of the calves died acutely, without marked premonitory signs of disease. Four calves evaluated clinically had lethargy, pallor, weakness, tachycardia, tachypnea, and jugular venous distention. Cardiac catheterization performed in 3 of the calves revealed pulmonary hypertension; 1 of these calves survived.

Necropsy findings in 19 calves included pale lungs and excess free fluid in the pleural and abdominal cavities. In addition, 13 of 19 calves had a dilated and thin-walled right ventricle; 4 of the calves had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy, and 2 had dilatation of the pulmonary artery. Microscopically, pulmonary arteritis and sclerosis of the small to medium-sized arteries were evident in all calves submitted for necropsy. A lung biopsy specimen from a surviving calf had similar lesions. Centrilobular hepatic necrosis was found in 17 of 19 calves. Investigation of the disease episode, including feed analysis for toxins and serologic and microbiological studies of clinically affected calves and clinically normal in-contact penmates, failed to reveal any associated risk factor. The pulmonary arterial changes in the calves were similar to lung lesions in rats fed monocrotaline.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare electroencephalography (EEG) artifact associated with use of the subdermal wire electrode (SWE), gold cup electrode (GCE), and subdermal needle electrode (SNE) over an 8-hour period in sedated and awake dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedures—8 EEG channels were recorded during 20-minute video-EEG recording sessions (intermittently at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours) with and without chlorpromazine sedation. Nonphysiologic artifacts were identified. Duration of artifact was summed for each channel. Number of unaffected channels (NUC) was determined.

Results—NUC was significantly affected by electrode type and sedation over time; median for SWE (2.80 channels; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 5.70 channels) was significantly different from medians for GCE (7.87 channels; 95% CI, 7.44 to 7.94 channels) and SNE (7.60 channels; 95% CI, 6.61 to 7.89 channels). After 4 hours, NUC decreased in awake dogs, regardless of electrode type. In awake dogs, duration of artifact differed significantly between SWE and GCE or SNE; medians at 8 hours were 61.55 seconds (95% CI, 21.81 to 173.65 seconds), 1.33 seconds (95% CI, 0.47 to 3.75 seconds), and 21.01 seconds (95% CI, 6.85 to 64.42 seconds), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SWE had a significant duration of artifact during recording periods > 2 hours, compared with results for the GCE and SNE, in awake dogs. The GCE, SNE, and sedation resulted in significantly more channels unaffected by artifact. For longer recordings, caution should be exercised in selecting EEG electrodes and sedation state, although differences among electrodes may not be clinically relevant.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research