Objective—To compare hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of halothane and isoflurane in horses undergoing arthroscopic surgery.
Animals—8 healthy adult horses.
Procedure—Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or halothane (crossover study). At 6 intervals during anesthesia and surgery, cardiopulmonary variables and related derived values were recorded. Recovery from anesthesia was assessed; gastrointestinal tract motility was subjectively monitored for 72 hours after anesthesia. Horses were administered chromium, and fecal chromium concentration was used to assess intestinal transit time. Venous blood samples were collected for clinicopathologic analyses before and 2, 24, and 48 hours after anesthesia.
Results—Compared with halothane-anesthetized horses, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and heart rate were higher and systemic vascular resistance was lower in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Mean arterial blood pressure and the dobutamine dose required to maintain blood pressure were similar for both treatments. Duration and quality of recovery from anesthesia did not differ between treatments, although the recovery periods were somewhat shorter with isoflurane. After isoflurane anesthesia, gastrointestinal motility normalized earlier and intestinal transit time of chromium was shorter than that detected after halothane anesthesia. Compared with isoflurane, halothane was associated with increases in serum aspartate transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities, but there were no other important differences in clinicopathologic variables between treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with halothane, isoflurane appears to be associated with better hemodynamic stability during anesthesia, less hepatic and muscle damage, and more rapid return of normal intestinal motility after anesthesia in horses undergoing arthroscopic procedures.
Objective—To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of administration of a solution of xylazine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (XGK) or inhaled isoflurane in mechanically ventilated calves undergoing surgery.
Animals—13 male calves 2 to 26 days of age.
Procedures—In calves in the XGK group, anesthesia was induced (0.5 mL/kg) and maintained (2.5 mL/kg/h) with a combination solution of xylazine (0.1 mg/mL), guaifenesin (50 mg/mL), and ketamine (1.0 mg/mL). For calves in the isoflurane group, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The rates of XGK infusion and isoflurane administration were adjusted to achieve suitable anesthetic depth. All calves received 100% oxygen and were mechanically ventilated to maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations from 35 to 40 mm Hg and underwent laparoscopic bladder surgery through an abdominal approach. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before induction and at intervals up to 90 minutes after anesthetic induction.
Results—The quality of induction was excellent in all calves. The XGK requirements were 0.57 ± 0.18 mL/kg and 2.70 ± 0.40 mL/kg/h to induce and maintain anesthesia, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline throughout the anesthetic period in the XGK group. Systolic arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the XGK group, compared with the isoflurane group, from 5 to 90 minutes. Cardiac index was lower than baseline in both groups. Differences between groups in cardiac index and arterial blood gas values were not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of XGK resulted in excellent anesthetic induction and maintenance with cardiopulmonary alterations similar to those associated with isoflurane in mechanically ventilated calves.