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  • Author or Editor: Kris T. Kruse-Elliott x
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Objective—To evaluate the effect of controlled exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the pulmonary inflammatory response of anesthetized pigs.

Animals—Forty-seven 8- to 12-week-old domestic pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were anesthetized with pentobarbital, instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary function, and randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 µg of LPS/kg/h for 2 or 6 hours via nebulization through the endotracheal tube. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured, ex vivo neutrophil superoxide production determined, and postmortem assessment for pulmonary neutrophil influx and modulation of adhesion molecule (E-selectin) expression was done.

Results—Mild changes in cardiopulmonary function were observed in response to inhaled LPS in the 2- and 6-hour groups. In pigs inhaling LPS (0.5 or 1.0 µg/kg/h) for 6 hours, there was significant pulmonary neutrophil influx observed postmortem. An increase in expression of E-selectin on pulmonary endothelial cells after 6 hours of LPS inhalation (0.5 µg/kg/h) was also observed. In contrast, there was no significant influx of neutrophils or expression of E-selectin in lungs from pigs inhaling LPS for 2 hours.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Inhalation of LPS resulted in localized pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophil influx and increased expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin. It may be possible to relate our experimental findings to the clinical consequences of airborne LPS exposure in swine confinement facilities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1302–1308)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the relation between epidural injectate volume (ml/kg of body weight) and its craniad migration in calves and pigs.


23 neonatal calves and 26 feeder pigs.


Animals were randomly assigned to receive different volumes of new methylene blue (NMB, 1.2 mg/ml in 0.9% saline solution). Injections were made into the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space in calves and the lumbosacral intervertebral space in pigs, immediately after euthanasia. Sagittal sections of the spine were made at necropsy, and craniad migration of NMB was determined and rounded to the nearest intervertebral space.


In calves treated with 0.05, 0.1, or 0.15 ml of NMB/kg, mean ± SEM number of stained spinal segments was 5 ± 0.3, 8 ± 0.6, and 8 ± 0.6, respectively. Craniad migration of NMB was significantly greater for 0.15 and 0.1 ml/kg volumes versus 0.05 ml/kg. In pigs treated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 ml of NMB/kg, mean number of stained spinal segments was 8 ± 1.1, 8 ± 0.9, 10 ± 1.2, and 18 ± 2.0. Craniad dye migration was significantly greater in the 0.3 ml/kg group versus the 3 lower volume groups. Linear regression performed on both sets of data after logarithmic transformation of spaces migrated to correct for non-normality was significant (P < 0.05), and R 2 values of 0.49 and 0.55 were obtained for calves and pigs, respectively.


There is a significant correlation between volume (ml/kg) of NMB injected in the epidural space and its craniad migration in calves and pigs.

Clinical Relevance

Results provide a basis for determination of volume of injectate to be given to reach a minimal desired level and should be a useful baseline for future investigations of epidural drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:786–790)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Plasma cortisol concentrations were compared in canine surgical patients given etomidate (2 mg/kg of body weight, iv) or thiopental sodium (12 mg/kg, iv) for anesthetic induction. Blood samples to determine plasma concentrations of etomidate were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after induction. Adrenocortical function was evaluated before surgery by use of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests. Dogs in both induction groups had high plasma cortisol concentrations after induction. Dogs given thiopental had a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after induction. Dogs given etomidate had a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma cortisol concentration from baseline at 5, 6, and 8 hours after induction. A comparison of plasma cortisol concentrations determined at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after induction with thiopental or etomidate revealed a higher (P < 0.05) concentration in dogs given thiopental.

The disposition of etomidate was best described by a 2-compartment model, with a redistribution half-life of 0.12 ± 0.04 minute and a terminal half-life of 1.70 ± 0.27 minute. Plasma cortisol concentrations did not correlate with plasma etomidate concentrations.

We conclude that, compared with thiopental, a single bolus injection of etomidate reduces the adrenocortical response to anesthesia and surgery from 2 to 6 hours after induction. Because cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than baseline, and because cardiopulmonary function is maintained after a single bolus injection of etomidate, it can be considered a safe induction agent in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare postoperative discomfort assessed by subjective pain score and plasma cortisol concentrations in cats undergoing onychectomy that received analgesia by use of transdermal fentanyl (TDF) patches or an IM injection of butorphanol.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—22 client-owned cats weighing 2.2 to 5 kg (4.84 to 11 lb) undergoing onychectomy.

Procedure—Researchers were blinded to which cats received a TDF patch (25 µg/h) 18 to 24 hours prior to surgery or an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) at the time of sedation, immediately following extubation, and at 4-hour intervals thereafter for 12 hours. Clinical variables, plasma cortisol concentration, and pain scores were evaluated and recorded 24 hours prior to surgery, at extubation, and 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery.

Results—The TDF group had a lower pain score than the butorphanol group only at 8 hours after surgery. Both groups had significantly lower mean plasma cortisol concentrations 0, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery, compared with mean plasma cortisol concentrations prior to surgery. No significant differences in appetite or response to handling the feet were observed between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data did not reveal a difference in pain relief between administration of TDF and butorphanol. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Fentanyl appeared to provide equivalent analgesia to butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy. The primary advantage of using a TDF patch is that repeated injections are not required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1020–1024)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association