Objective—To assess the effect of maternal cells or cellular components on neonatal immune responses to intracellular pathogens in calves.
Animals—15 Holstein calves.
Procedures—Calves were fed whole colostrum, frozen colostrum, or cell-free colostrum within 4 hours after birth. Leukocytes were obtained from calves before feeding colostrum and 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ingestion. Proliferative responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and mycobacterial purified protein derivatives were evaluated. Dams received a vaccine containing inactivated BVDV, but were not vaccinated against mycobacterial antigens.
Results—All calves had essentially no IgG in circulation at birth, but comparable and substantial concentrations by day 1. Calves that received whole colostrum had enhanced responses to BVDV antigen 1 and 2 days after ingestion of colostrum. In contrast, calves that received frozen colostrum or cell-free colostrum did not respond to BVDV. No differences were identified among the 3 groups in response to mycobacterial antigens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that transfer of live maternal cells from colostrum to neonatal calves enhanced responses to antigens against which the dams had previously responded (BVDV), but not to antigens to which the dams were naïve (mycobacterial purified protein derivatives). Results suggested that cell-mediated immune transfer to neonates can be enhanced by maternal vaccination.
Objective—To assess the in vitro capability of aqueous black walnut extracts (BWEs) to generate reactive oxygen species in water-based media ranging in makeup from a simple buffer solution to a complex solution containing serum.
Procedures—Production of reactive oxygen species by BWEs prepared in water or N-hexane was tested in PBS solution, PBS solution containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin and 5mM glucose (PBG), and RPMI-1640 medium (RPMI) containing 10% fetal bovine serum or 10% donor horse serum. Reactive oxygen species production was measured as conversion of nonfluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123 by reactive oxygen species to its fluorescent product, rhodamine-123. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a standard for reactive oxygen species activity.
Results—BWEs prepared in water generated reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner over a 4-hour period, with peak activity detected when the BWEs were added as 10% (vol/vol) of the RPMI. The BWE prepared in N-hexane generated maximal reactive oxygen species activity after incubation for 3 to 4 hours when added at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 0.5% (vol/vol) of the RPMI. The BWE prepared in water generated the highest fluorescent signal in PBS solution, whereas the BWE prepared in N-hexane generated the highest fluorescent signal in PBG.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BWEs prepared in water generated a dose-dependent induction of fluorescence in all the water-based solutions tested. These findings indicated that the BWEs, which are used to induce laminitis in horses, generate reactive oxygen species.
Objective—To compare immune responses following modified-live virus (MLV) vaccination at weaning after intranasal or SC administration of an MLV vaccine to beef calves at 2 or 70 days of age.
Procedures—Calves were allocated to 1 of 5 groups. The IN2 (n = 37) and IN70 (37) groups received an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza 3 virus intranasally and a Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida bacterin SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively. The SC2 (n = 36) and SC70 (37) groups received a 7-way MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1, BVDV2, BRSV, parainfluenza 3 virus, M haemolytica, and P multocida SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively; the control group (37) remained unvaccinated until weaning. All calves received the 7-way MLV vaccine SC at median ages of 217 (weaning) and 231 days. Serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers against BHV1, BVDV1, and BRSV and intranasal IgA concentrations were determined at median ages of 2, 70, 140, 217, and 262 days. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against BHV1, BRSV, BVDV1, and P multocida was determined for 16 calves/group.
Results—At median ages of 140 and 217 days, BVDV1 SNA titers were significantly higher for the SC70 group than those for the other groups. Intranasal IgA concentrations and CMI increased over time for all groups. Vaccination at weaning increased SNA titers and CMI in all groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC administration of an MLV vaccine to 70-day-old calves significantly increased BVDV1 antibody titers before weaning.