Objective—To determine the Helicobacter spp present in the oral cavity of dogs and the relationship of those organisms with gastric Helicobacter spp to better define the potential for dog-human and dog-dog transmission.
Sample—Saliva and dental plaque from 28 dogs and gastric biopsy specimens from a subset of 8 dogs.
Procedures—PCR-based screening for Helicobacter spp was conducted on samples obtained from the oral cavity of 28 dogs. Comparative analysis was conducted on Helicobacteraceae 16S rDNA clone libraries from the oral cavity and stomach of a subset of 8 dogs (5 vomiting and 3 healthy) that had positive PCR results for Helicobacter spp.
Results—Helicobacteraceae DNA was identified in the oral cavity of 24 of 28 dogs. Analysis of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons from 8 dogs revealed that Wolinella spp was the most common (8/8 dogs) and abundant (52/57 [91%] clones) member of the Helicobacteraceae family in the oral cavity. Only 2 of 8 dogs harbored Helicobacter spp in the oral cavity, and 1 of those was coinfected with Helicobacter heilmannii and Helicobacter felis in samples obtained from the stomach and saliva. Evaluation of oral cavity DNA with Wolinella-specific PCR primers yielded positive results for 16 of 20 other dogs (24/28 samples were positive for Wolinella spp).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Wolinella spp rather than Helicobacter spp were the predominant Helicobacteraceae in the oral cavity of dogs. The oral cavity of dogs was apparently not a zoonotically important reservoir of Helicobacter spp that were non–Helicobacter pylori organisms.
Objective—To evaluate factors associated with response to treatment, remission duration, and survival in cats with low-grade lymphoma affecting various organ systems.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—41 cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma.
Procedures—Medical records and biopsy specimens of cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma of various organ systems treated with prednisone and chlorambucil between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate remission duration and survival. Factors potentially associated with prognosis were compared.
Results—Common clinical signs were weight loss (83%), vomiting (73%), anorexia (66%), and diarrhea (58%). Seventy-eight percent of cats tested had low serum cobalamin concentrations. Lymphoma was confined to the gastrointestinal tract in 68% of cats. Fifty-six percent of cats achieved a complete response to treatment, and 39% achieved a partial response. Five percent of cats had no response. No association was found between any risk factors (including anatomic site) and response to treatment. Partial response was associated with shorter remission duration, compared with complete response; median remission duration was 428 days for cats achieving a partial response, compared with 897 days for cats achieving a complete response. No other factors were associated with remission duration. Overall median survival time was 704 days. No factors were significantly associated with survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats with lymphocytic lymphoma responded to treatment with prednisone and chlorambucil, and most factors evaluated were not associated with outcome.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of hydromorphone,
hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine,
and butorphanol premedication on the difficulty
and time required to pass an endoscope into the
stomach and duodenum of cats anesthetized with
ketamine and isoflurane.
Design—Randomized complete block crossover
Animals—8 purpose-bred adult female cats.
Procedures—Each cat was premedicated and anesthetized
4 times with an interval of at least 7 days
between procedures. Cats were premedicated with
hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate,
medetomidine, or butorphanol administered IM. Twenty
minutes after premedication, sedation was assessed by
use of a subjective ordinal scale. Cats received ketamine
administered IM, and 10 minutes later a cuffed
orotracheal tube was placed and anesthesia maintained
with isoflurane. Cats breathed spontaneously throughout
the procedure. When end-tidal isoflurane concentration
was stable at 1.4% for 15 minutes, endoscopy
was begun. The times required to pass the endoscope
through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were recorded,
and the difficulty of endoscope passage was scored
by use of a subjective ordinal scale.
Results—No significant differences in difficulty or
time required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac
and pyloric sphincters were found among premedicant
groups. Premedication with medetomidine
resulted in the greatest degree of sedation and
longest time to return to sternal recumbency.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate,
medetomidine, and butorphanol at the
doses tested can be used satisfactorily to premedicate
cats prior to general anesthesia for gastroduodenoscopy.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:540–544)