To evaluate the clinical feasibility and usefulness of measuring shunt fraction (SF) and hepatic perfusion with CT in dogs with a single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EPSS).
36 client-owned dogs with EPSS.
Dogs with EPSS referred for treatment between February 2016 and May 2017 were eligible for the clinical trial. Shunt type, SF, and hepatic perfusion were determined in each dog with a 320-row multidetector CT scanner, and surgical treatment was performed by a single veterinary surgeon. Differences in results between dogs grouped according to age (< 3 years vs ≥ 3 years), shunt type, and subgroups (eg, clinical signs and surgical procedure) were analyzed, and correlations between the SF and hepatic perfusion variables were evaluated.
The median SF was higher in dogs < 3 years old (74.6%; n = 18) versus dogs ≥ 3 years old (35.1%; 18). Correlations were identified between SF and hepatic perfusion variables, and differences in results for SF and hepatic perfusion variables were detected between dogs grouped according to shunt type.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that CT-derived measurements of SF and hepatic perfusion variables in dogs with EPSS were feasible and could be useful (eg, estimating EPSS condition status and planning treatment) in clinical settings. In addition, our findings suggested that perfusion CT could be useful for distinguishing hemodynamic characteristics among different types of portosystemic shunts in dogs.
To evaluate the hepatic CT perfusion (CTP) for determining the appropriate protocol for the dual-input maximum-slope model in dogs.
5 healthy dogs.
Each dog underwent CTP with different contrast medium administration protocols. Combinations of three different injected doses of iohexol (450, 600, and 750 mg/kg) and injection durations (5, 10, and 15 seconds) were used. The CT values at the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic parenchyma were measured to create a time–density curve, and CTP parameters were measured simultaneously on each hepatic lobe using a 320-row multidetector CT scanner.
The maximum peak enhancement at the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic parenchyma was greater with the 750-mg/kg dose than with the 450-mg/kg dose. With an injection duration of 15 seconds, the aortic enhancement peak was less, and the arrival time at the aortic enhancement peak was longer compared to that with a 5-second injection duration. The CTP parameters in the caudate process of the caudate lobe and left lateral lobe differed with different injection durations. The CTP parameters in the caudate process of the caudate lobe, left lateral lobe, and right lateral lobe differed with varying injected doses.
Our study demonstrated that rapid administration of the contrast medium was required for quantitative analysis of hepatic CTP in healthy dogs. The CTP parameters differed with respect to the contrast medium administration protocol, and it was necessary to administer the contrast medium within a fixed duration and at a fixed dose to evaluate CTP correctly.