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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of IV administration of fluids on the furosemide-induced reduction in right atrial pressure (RAP) and relative change in blood volume (BV) of splenectomized mares.

Animals

5 splenectomized mares.

Procedure

RAP was measured by use of a micromanometer placed in the right atrium. Jugular venous blood was collected for measurement of hematocrit, plasma total protein concentration, and hemoglobin concentration. Right atrial pressure was recorded and blood samples were collected immediately before furosemide (1 mg/kg of body weight, IV) administration, then every 15 minutes for 240 minutes. Beginning 120 minutes after furosemide administration, polyionic fluids (lactated Ringer's solution) were administered (2 L q 15 min) for 120 minutes.

Results

Furosemide induced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in mean RAP (7.6 ± 1.5 and 3.2 ± 1.2 mm of Hg before and 15 minutes after furosemide administration, respectively), and BV (8.4 ± 1.1 % by 15 minutes). Polyionic fluid administration restored RAP and BV The volume of polyionic fluids administered (32 ± 2 ml/kg) was not significantly different from the volume of urine produced (38 ± 7.8 ml/kg). Difference was not apparent in the relation between change in BV and RAP before or after fluid administration.

Conclusions

The effect of furosemide on RAP of horses is mediated in large part by furosemide-induced reduction in BV. However, an effect of furosemide on venous compliance cannot be excluded as contributing to the reduction in RAP. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:632–635)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effect of premedication with phenylbutazone on systemic hemodynamic and diuretic effects of furosemide was examined in 6 healthy, conscious, mares. Mares were instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics, including cardiac output and pulmonary arterial, systemic arterial, and intracardiac pressures, and urine flow. Each of 3 treatments was administered in a randomized, blinded study; furosemide (1 mg/kg of body weight, iv) only, phenylbutazone (8.8 mg/kg, po, at 24 hours and 4.4 mg/kg, iv, 30 minutes before furosemide) and furosemide, or 0.9% NaCl. Phenylbutazone administration significantly attenuated, but did not abolish, the diuretic effect of furosemide. Phenylbutazone completely inhibited the immediate effect of furosemide on cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and right ventricular peak pressure. Premedication with phenylbutazone did not inhibit equally the diuretic and hemodynamic effects of furosemide, indicating that some of furosemide's hemodynamic effects are mediated by an extrarenal activity of furosemide.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of furosemide-induced weight loss on the energetic responses of horses to running was examined in a 3-way crossover study. Eight 2- to 3-year-old Standardbred mares received, in random order, 10 ml of saline solution 4 hours before running on a treadmill (control trial, C); or, during 2 trials, 1 mg of furosemide/kg of body weight, iv, 4 hours before running. During one of the trials when the horses received furosemide, they carried weight equal to that lost over the 3.75 hours after furosemide administration while running (furosemide-loaded, fl), and during the other trial they did not carry weight equal to that lost after furosemide administration (furosemide-unloaded, fu). Horses performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill during which rates of oxygen consumption (Vco2) and carbon dioxide production (Vco2) were measured, respiratory exchange ratio was calculated, and blood samples were collected for determination of mixed venous plasma lactate concentration and arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation. Furosemide treatment caused significantly (P < 0.001) greater weight loss than did saline administration; mean ± sem weight loss (exclusive of fecal loss) was 1.6, 8.8, and 10.2 kg (sem = 2.0) for C, fl, and fu trials, respectively. The speed at which peak Vo2 was achieved was 9.31, 9.56, and 9.50 (sem = 0.16) m/s, respectively, time to fatigue was 547, 544, and 553 (sem = 26) seconds, respectively, and the highest speed attained was 10.3, 10.2, and 10.2 (sem = 0.2) m/s, respectively. Mean peak rate of oxygen consumption was 130.7, 129.6, and 129.6 (sem = 1.9) ml/min/kg, respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.070) group × speed interaction for Vco2; during trial fu, horses had significantly (P < 0.05) lower rate of CO2 production at speed of 9 m/s and at the speed that caused peak Vo2, than during trial C. The respiratory exchange ratio during the fu trial was significantly (P < 0.05) less than that during the C trial at the speed that caused peak Vo2. Plasma lactate concentration at speed of 9 m/s for C, fl, and fu trials was 15.4, 16.5, and 13.3 (sem = 0.8) mmol/L, respectively; values for the fl and C trials were not significantly different, whereas the mean value for the fu trial was significantly (P < 0.05) less than that for the C trial. Thus, administration of furosemide to horses altered the energetic response to exertion. Replacement of the furosemide-induced weight loss resulted in Vco2, plasma lactate, and respiratory exchange values indistinguishable from those during the control trial.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Plasma insulin concentration of many species has a characteristic early or acute-phase response in the minutes after IV administration of glucose. However, the plasma insulin response of horses soon after the IV administration of glucose has not been examined, whereas the more prolonged response has been evaluated. We examined the plasma insulin and glucose concentration responses of adult mares during the 30 minutes after rapid IV administration of glucose (0.33 g/kg of body weight). Plasma glucose concentration peaked at 664 ± 54 mg/dl within 1 minute of cessation of glucose administration, whereas insulin concentration peaked at 326 ± 24 pmol/L at 2 minutes after the end of glucose administration. Thus, these mares had an acute insulin response, consistent with that observed in other species, including dogs, human beings, and cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To compare the accuracy of anion gap (AG) and strong ion gap (SIG) for predicting unmeasured strong ion concentration in plasma and serum from horses.

Animals

6 well-trained Standardbred horses undergoing high-intensity exercise (experimental study) and 78 horses and ponies that underwent IV administration of lactic acid or endotoxin, and endurance, submaximal, or high-intensity exercise.

Procedure

Anion gap was calculated as AG = (Na+ + K+) − (Cl- + HCO 3), and SIG was calculated, using the simplified strong ion model, whereby SIG (mEq/L) = 2.24 × total protein (g/dl)/(1 + 106.65−pH) − AG. The relation between AG or SIG and plasma lactate concentration was evaluated, using linear regression analysis.

Results

Linear relations between plasma lactate concentration and AG and SIG were strong for the experimental study (r2 = 0.960 and 0.966, respectively) and the published studies (r2 = 0.914 and 0.925, respectively). The following relations were derived: AG = 1.00 × plasma lactate + 10.5; SIG = 0.99 × plasma lactate + 2.8. An AG > 15 mEq/L indicated an increased unmeasured anion concentration, whereas a SIG < −2 mEq/L indicated an increased unmeasured strong anion concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevence

Anion gap and SIG can be used to predict plasma lactate concentration in horses. AG is accurate and clinically useful for estimating unmeasured strong ion concentration in horses with total protein concentrations within or slightly outside reference range, whereas SIG is more accurate in horses with markedly abnormal total protein concentrations and those of various ages and with various concentrations of albumin, globulin, and phosphate. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:881–887)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine components of the increase in oxygen consumption (O2) and evaluate determinants of hemoglobin saturation (SO2) during incremental treadmill exercise in unfit horses.

Animals—7 unfit adult mares.

Procedures—Horses performed 1 preliminary exercise test (EXT) and 2 experimental EXT. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples and hemodynamic measurements were taken during the last 30 seconds of each step of the GXT to measure PO2, hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), SO2, and determinants of acidbase state (protein, electrolytes, and PCO2).

Results—Increased O2 during exercise was facilitated by significant increases in cardiac output (CO), [Hb], and widening of the arteriovenous difference in O2. Arterial and venous pH, PaO2, and PvO2 decreased during exercise. Arterial PCO2, bicarbonate ([HCO3])a, and [HCO3]v decreased significantly, whereas PvCO2 and increased. Arterial and venous sodium concentration, potassium concentration, strong ion difference, and venous lactate concentration all increased significantly during exercise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in CO, [Hb], and O2 extraction contributed equally to increased O2 during exercise. Higher PCO2 did not provide an independent contribution to shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (OCD) in venous blood. However, lower PaCO2 shifted the curve leftward, facilitating O2 loading. The shift of ODC resulted in minimal effect on O2 extraction because of convergence of the ODC at lower values of PO2. Decreased pH appeared responsible for the rightward shift of the ODC, which may be necessary to allow maximal O2 extraction at high blood flows achieved during exercise. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1325–1332)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of furosemide administration on exertion-induced changes in plasma renin activity and plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone in horses during sustained submaximal exertion were examined. Furosemide (1 mg/kg of body weight) or heparinized saline solution was administered iv to each of 6 mares not conditioned to exercise, either 4 hours or 2 minutes before 60 minutes of sustained submaximal running on a treadmill. Horses ran at a speed that induced heart rate approximately 65% of maximal after saline treatment. After 15 minutes of running, furosemide suppressed the exertion-induced increase in plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (mean [95% confidence interval] values of 63.9 [9.9 to 421] pg/ml vs 100 [15.4 to 652] pg/ml after furosemide or saline treatment, respectively), and enhanced the response of plasma renin activity to exertion (18.6 [5.7 to 60.4] ng/ml/h vs 6.0 [1.8 to 19.4] ng/ml/h, respectively). An effect of furosemide on the exertion-induced increase in plasma aldosterone concentration was not detected.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of acute exercise on hepatic blood flow by studying hepatic clearance of bromsulphalein for several submaximal exercise intensities.

Animals

8 adult Standardbred mares.

Procedure

Horses were subjected to 4 submaximal exercise intensities (resting and 40, 60, and 80% maximal oxygen consumption). After horses had been running at the required treadmill speed for 1 minute, bromsulphalein (BSP; 5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was administered during a 45- to 60-second period, and horses continued at the desired speed for an additional 15 minutes. Blood samples were collected at 2-minute intervals for 30 minutes, and plasma concentration of BSP was determined by spectrophotometry. Estimates of pharmacokinetic variables were compared among the 4 exercise intensities, using a Friedman repeated-measures analysis on ranks and linear regression.

Results

Median values for clearance of BSP from blood and plasma decreased significantly with exercise and was linearly related to exercise intensity. Exercise-induced differences were not detected in the volume of distribution of BSP. Elimination half-life of BSP increased significantly with increasing exercise intensity and was linearly related to exercise intensity.

Conclusions

Acute submaximal exercise has a dramatic effect on clearance of BSP in horses. Presumably, exercise-induced decreases in splanchnic blood flow limit blood flow to the liver, decreasing hepatic clearance of BSP and leading to persistence of plasma concentrations of BSP.

Clinical Implications

Drugs that are efficiently extracted by the liver may have decreased hepatic clearance when horses exercise at submaximal intensities. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1481–1487)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To measure renal clearance of antipyrine and urinary excretion of antipyrine (AP) metabolites in horses by use of validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.

Animals

8 Standardbred mares.

Procedure

HPLC methods for measurement of AP in equine plasma and AP and its metabolites in equine urine were validated. Antipyrine (20 mg/kg of body weight) was administered IV, and blood samples and urine specimens were collected over 24 hours.

Results

Median plasma clearance of AP in horses was 6.2 ml/min/kg, of which < 2% could be attributed to renal clearance. Urinary excretion of AP and its metabolites over 24 hours accounted for < 22% of the AP dose administered. The major metabolite of AP in urine was 4-hydroxyantipyrine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Use of the proven validated methods for measuring AP and its metabolites indicated that AP has minimal renal clearance in horses, suggesting that plasma clearance of AP reflects hepatic clearance. Combined with AP metabolite data, the pharmacokinetics of AP may be useful for assessment of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:280–285)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research