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  • Author or Editor: Joseph G. Hauptman x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess the influence of preanesthetic administration of acetylpromazine or morphine and fluids on urine production, arginine vasopressin (AVP; previously known as antidiuretic hormone) concentrations, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma osmolality (Osm), PCV, and concentration of total solids (TS) during anesthesia and surgery in dogs.

Animals—19 adult dogs.

Procedure—Concentration of AVP, indirect MAP, Osm, PCV, and concentration of TS were measured at 5 time points (before administration of acetylpromazine or morphine, after administration of those drugs, after induction of anesthesia, 1 hour after the start of surgery, and 2 hours after the start of surgery). Urine output and end-tidal halothane concentrations were measured 1 and 2 hours after the start of surgery. All dogs were administered lactated Ringer's solution (20 ml/kg of body weight/h, IV) during surgery.

Results—Compared with values for acetylpromazine, preoperative administration of morphine resulted in significantly lower urine output during the surgical period. Groups did not differ significantly for AVP concentration, Osm, MAP, and end-tidal halothane concentration; however, PCV and concentration of TS decreased over time in both groups and were lower in dogs given acetylpromazine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preanesthetic administration of morphine resulted in significantly lower urine output, compared with values after administration of acetylpromazine, which cannot be explained by differences in AVP concentration or MAP. When urine output is used as a guide for determining rate for IV administration of fluids in the perioperative period, the type of preanesthetic agent used must be considered.(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1922–1927)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate differences in clinical variables among dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) of various morphologies.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—53 dogs with EHPSSs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs undergoing preoperative CT angiography of an EHPSS over a 3-year period were reviewed. Analysis was performed to investigate relationships of clinical variables with shunt morphology. Morphologies were analyzed individually as well as in several groups.

Results—Shunt morphologies included 10 splenocaval, 9 splenophrenic, 11 splenoazygos, 10 right gastric-caval, 12 right gastric-caval with a caudal loop, and 1 right gastric-azygos with a caudal loop. Several biochemical variables associated with EHPSS were lowest in dogs with splenocaval shunts. Preoperative clinical signs were more common in dogs that had shunts with vena caval than right azygos vein insertion (36/41 [88%] vs 7/12 [58%]) and insertion caudal to the liver than diaphragmatic insertion (29/32 [91%] vs 14/21 [67%]). Neurologic signs were more common when shunts inserted into the vena cava caudal to the liver than in other locations (21/32 [66%] vs 6/21 [29%]) and were most frequent with splenocaval shunts. Urinary tract signs were more common when shunts had right gastric vein origin than gastrosplenic vein origin (14/23 [61%] vs 10/30 [33%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Splenocaval shunts caused more clinical abnormalities than did other shunt morphologies. Results suggested that dogs with shunt insertion in the caudal vena cava, especially caudal to the liver, were most likely to have clinical signs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A standardized cortical defect was created on the caudal cortex of the proximal portion of each ulna in 5 adult mixed-breed dogs. One gram of autogenous cancellous bone graft (acbg) was obtained from the greater tubercle of the ipsilateral humerus. The cortical defect in the ulna of 1 limb was filled with 1 g of acbg that had been compressed with 2-MPa pressure for 30 seconds. One gram of noncompressed acbg was placed into the contralateral ulnar cortical defect. The compressed and noncompressed acbg recipient sites were radiographed at weekly intervals. Dogs were euthanatized 8 weeks after surgery, and the acbg recipient sites were harvested for histomor-phometric analysis. Optical densitometry was performed on all radiographs. There was no significant difference between compressed and noncompressed acbg with optical densitometry or histomorphometric analysis for total bone area. We concluded that there was no difference in osteogenic capability between compressed and noncompressed acbg of equal mass.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Enrofloxacin was administered orally to 6 healthy dogs at dosages of approximately 2.75, 5.5, and 11 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosage regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh treatments. The mean peak serum concentration occurred between 1 and 2.5 hours after dosing. Peak serum concentrations increased with increases in dosage. For each dosage regimen, there was an accumulation of enrofloxacin between the first and seventh treatment, as demonstrated by a significant (P = 0.001) increase in peak serum concentrations. The serum elimination half-life increased from 3.39 hours for the 2.75 mg/kg dosage to 4.94 hours for the 11 mg/kg dosage. Enrofloxacin accumulated slowly into tcf, with peak concentrations being approximately 58% of those of serum. The time of peak tcf concentrations occurred between 3.8 hours and 5.9 hours after drug administration, depending on the dosage and whether it was after single or multiple administrations. Compared with serum concentrations (area under the curve tcf /area under the curveserum), the percentage of enrofloxacin penetration into tcf was 85% at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg, 83% at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg, and 88% at a dosage of 11 mg/kg. All 3 dosage regimens of enrofloxacin induced continuous serum and tcf concentrations greater than the minimal concentration required to inhibit 90% (mic 90) of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only the 11 mg/kg dosage regimen provided continuous serum and tcf concentrations that exceeded the mic 90 for P aeruginosa isolates; whereas none of the dosages induced serum or tcf concentrations greater than the mic 90 of the obligate anaerobic bacteria tested.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To compare skin test reactivity of ID injected histamine phosphate in clinically normal dogs that were physically restrained or anesthetized with propofol.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure

Nonanesthetized dogs (group 1) were restrained and shaved on the right side of the thorax. A single injection of sterile buffered saline solution (negative control) and 5 serial dilutions of histamine phosphate (0.05 ml each) were injected ID. Wheal size was measured after 15 minutes. Propofol anesthetized dogs (group 2) were shaved, and saline solution and histamine were administered ID. Wheal size was measured as for nonanesthetized dogs. Hemoglobin saturation, heart and respiratory rates, and times to sternal recumbency and standing were recorded for anesthetized dogs. Twenty-four hours later, groups were reversed, and testing was repeated on the left side of the thorax.

Results

Mean wheal size was significantly (P < 0.05) less in dogs during propofol anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates were well maintained but hemoglobin saturation decreased during the first 6 minutes of anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although statistically significant, the difference in mean wheal size may not be clinically important. Propofol anesthesia may be used during ID skin testing in atopic dogs. Further studies to assess effects of propofol on the reactivity of ID injected aeroallergens should be performed before recommending its use. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:7–9)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of orally administered glucosamine on concentrations of markers of bone and cartilage metabolism in Standardbred horses during race training.

Animals—Twenty 16- to 20-month-old Standardbreds beginning race training.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One group received glucosamine hydrochloride (4 g, PO, q 12 h), and the second (control) group received glucose (4 g, PO, q 12 h). Serum samples were obtained prior to onset of the study (baseline) and at regular intervals for 48 weeks for determination of concentrations of keratan sulfate (KS), osteocalcin (OC), and pyridinoline crosslinks (PYD).

Results—Osteocalcin concentrations changed significantly with time; mean serum concentrations were significantly higher than baseline values for samples obtained at 24 to 48 weeks after onset of the study. Although a significant effect of time was observed for mean concentration of KS, concentrations did not differ significantly from baseline values at any time during the study when groups were analyzed separately. However, pooled analysis revealed significant increases of mean serum KS concentration at weeks 24 and 30. Significant changes in serum PYD concentrations were not detected. Oral administration of glucosamine did not significantly affect serum concentrations of any of the markers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased serum OC in clinically normal Standardbreds during race training may reflect bone formation that accompanies adaptive remodeling of the appendicular skeleton. For these experimental conditions, glucosamine did not appear to exert a detectable influence on serum concentrations of these 3 markers of connective tissue metabolism. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1106–1110)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent, was administered orally to 4 healthy dogs at dosage of approximately 11 and 23 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosing regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh dose of each dosing regimen. The peak concentration was greatest in the serum after multiple doses of 23 mg/kg (mean ± sem; 5.68 ± 0.54 μg/ml) and least in the tcf after a single dose of 11 mg/kg (0.43 ± 0.54 μg/ml). The time to peak concentration was not influenced by multiple dosing or drug dose, but was longer for tcf (6.41 ± 0.52 hour) than for serum (1.53 ± 0.52 hour). Accumulation of ciprofloxacin was reflected by the area under the concentration curve from 0 to 12 hours after administration (AUC0→12). The AUC0→12 was greatest in the serum after multiple doses of 23 mg/kg (31.95 ± 1.90 μg·h/ml) and least in the tcf after a single dose of 11 mg/kg (3.87 ± 1.90 μg·h/ml). The elimination half-life was not influenced by multiple dosing or dose concentration, but was greater for tcf (14.59 ± 1.91 hours) than for serum (5.14 ± 1.91 hours). The percentage of tcf penetration (AUCTCF/AUCserum ) was greater after multiple doses (95.76 ± 6.79%) than after a single dose (55.55 ± 6.79%) and was not different between doses of 11 and 23 mg/kg. Both dosing regimens of ciprofloxacin resulted in continuous serum and tcf concentrations > 90% of the minimal inhibitory concentration for the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research