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  • Author or Editor: Jongmin Kim x
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Objective—To compare temporospatial variables (TSVs) and kinetic variables (KVs) for fore-limbs and hind limbs of small and large dogs of various breeds during walking and to determine associations among body weight (BW), TSVs, and KVs in these groups.

Animals—12 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness.

Procedures—Dogs (grouped according to BW as small [< 10 kg; n = 6] or large [> 25 kg; 6]) were walked in a straight line at their preferred velocity on a wooden platform with an embedded pressure-sensing walkway. Five valid trials were analyzed for each dog; mean TSVs and KVs were determined for each group. The TSVs and KVs for forelimbs and hind limbs were compared between groups, and correlations among BW, TSVs, and KVs were determined.

Results—Small dogs had significantly smaller TSVs and KVs than did large dogs. Temporal variables of small dogs and absolute vertical force variables of small and large dogs increased as BW increased. However, normalized peak vertical force and weight distribution values among the 4 limbs were similar between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial similarities and differences were detected in gait characteristics between small and large dogs. Results indicated TSVs and KVs can be used for comparison of the walking gait between dogs or for comparison of variables between limbs in an individual dog. Use of the pressure-sensing walkway is a simple method for acquisition of TSVs and KVs for large and small dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To test the hypotheses that kinematic data of the sagittal motion of canine hind limbs during walking obtained with a 2-dimensional (2-D) system correlate well with those obtained with a 3-dimensional (3-D) system and that the data obtained with the 2-D system are repeatable.

Animals—6 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness.

Procedures—Hind limb motions of 6 walking dogs were recorded via 2-D video and 3-D optoelectric systems simultaneously. Five valid trials were digitized, and 5 data sets (2-D 60 Hz, 3-D 180 Hz, 3-D sagittal 180 Hz, 3-D 60 Hz, and 3-D sagittal 60 Hz) of a complete gait cycle were created for each dog. In sagittal data sets, 3-D data were reduced to exclude coordinates for mediolateral orientation. Temporospatial parameters; angles of hip, stifle, and tarsal joints; and coefficients of variation of angular measurements of each dog were calculated for each data set. Accuracy of the 2-D analysis was determined by calculating mean absolute differences and estimating agreement between the 2-D and 3-D 180-Hz data sets.

Results—Values of joint angles and angular excursions measured with the 2-D system were repeatable and agreed with respective values obtained with the 3-D system. Reduction of the sampling rate had a greater impact on values of kinematic variables obtained with the 3-D system than did elimination of data on mediolateral orientation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kinematic analysis using a 2-D video system provided accurate and repeatable data of the sagittal angular motion of canine hind limbs during walking.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research