Objective—To determine whether use of serologic
evaluation of a sentinel sample of calves or cows for
antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)
would accurately predict whether an animal persistently
infected with BVDV could be detected in beef
Sample Population—27 cow-calf herds in which the
status of persistently infected calves was not known and
11 herds known to have persistently infected calves.
Procedure—Detection of persistently infected calves
was determined through immunohistochemical testing
of tissue obtained at necropsy of all calves that
died during calving season and skin (ear notch) specimens
obtained from all young stock in the fall of
2002. Serum samples were collected from 30 springborn
calves and 10 mature cows.
Results—Optimum serologic test performance at
time of weaning was detected when 10 calves were
evaluated. At least 3 of 10 randomly selected calves
were likely to have a titer > 1:1,000 against BVDV
type I or II in 53% of herds in which a persistently
infected calf was detected during that year (sensitivity,
53%). However, at least 3 of 10 randomly selected
calves were also likely to have a titer > 1:1,000 in
20% of herds that did not have a persistently infected
calf detected during that year (specificity, 80%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite the
use of a number of various cutoff values and sample
sizes, serologic evaluation of a small number of calves
or cows could not be used to accurately predict the
presence of persistently infected cattle in a herd. (Am
J Vet Res 2005;66:825–834)
Objective—To describe the degree of and variability
in the level of client compliance and identify determinants
of client compliance with short-term administration
of antimicrobial medications to dogs.
Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed
Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate
when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data
were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of
a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an
electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians
also completed a questionnaire that asked
them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing
compliance were compared with nonparametric
tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to
investigate potential determinants of compliance.
Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed
container openings, 91% of days when the
correct number of doses were given, and 64% of
doses given on time as assessed by the electronic
medication monitoring devices were significantly
lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for
client self-report of missing doses and pill count.
Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance.
The dosage regimen significantly determined
compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or
twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant,
compared with 3 times daily dosing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination
of reported missed doses and pill counts was a
significant predictor of compliance as measured by
electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided
useful information only when they were used
appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and
performing pill counts are the most practical assessments
of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.
Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.
Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.