Objective—To determine long-term outcome of dogs
with gallbladder mucocele.
Animals—30 dogs with gallbladder mucocele, including
23 that underwent cholecystectomy.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment,
history, and clinical, ultrasonographic, and
surgical findings. Follow-up information was obtained
for all dogs that survived the perioperative hospitalization
Results—23 dogs had signs of systemic illness; 7 had
no clinical signs. Median values for serum activities of
alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase,
serum total bilirubin concentration, and total WBC
count were significantly higher among dogs with gallbladder
rupture than among dogs without rupture.
Sensitivity of sonography for detection of rupture was
85.7%. Overall perioperative mortality rate for dogs
that underwent cholecystectomy was 21.7%; mortality
rate was not significantly greater for dogs with rupture.
Aerobic bacteria were isolated from the bile or gallbladder
wall in 8.7% of dogs. All 18 dogs discharged
from the hospital had complete resolution of clinical
signs. In dogs that underwent in-hospital reexamination,
serum liver enzyme activities were significantly
decreased, compared with preoperative activities.
Persistent increases in serum activities of 1 or more
liver enzymes were detected in 9 of 12 dogs; 6 of 12
dogs had persistent abnormalities in hepatic
echogenicity. Mean follow-up period was 13.9 months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cholecystectomy is an effective treatment
for gallbladder mucocele. Although perioperative mortality
rate is high, prognosis after discharge from the
hospital is excellent. Rupture of the gallbladder warrants
emergency surgical intervention but does not
preclude a positive outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
To evaluate the effects of ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) resection on gastrointestinal signs, biochemical parameters, and nutritional variables in dogs and cats.
20 dogs and 15 cats that underwent ICJ resection between January 2008 and June 2020.
Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent ICJ resection were reviewed, and clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and nutritional information were obtained. Additional follow-up information was obtained by contacting primary care veterinarians or owners. A subset of dogs (n = 6) and cats (2) were evaluated in the hospital via clinical examination, clinicopathologic testing, nutritional testing, and abdominal ultrasound.
Twenty dogs and 15 cats underwent resection of the ICJ for treatment of a variety of conditions. Ten of 20 dogs (50%) and 11/15 cats (73%) were reported by their owners to have a good long-term outcome based on the lack of long-term gastrointestinal signs or the ability to control gastrointestinal signs with diet and supplements alone. Despite owner-reported good outcomes, long-term diarrhea, weight loss, and muscle loss were common. Of the 6 dogs evaluated in the hospital, 3/6 (50%) had muscle loss, 2/6 (33%) had low taurine concentrations, and 1 dog each had low cobalamin, folate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and ionized calcium. Neither of the 2 cats evaluated in the hospital had nutritional abnormalities identified.
Owners should be informed of the possibility of long-term gastrointestinal clinical signs and the potential need for long-term nutritional management after ICJ resection.
Objective—To determine whether multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) could be identified in dogs with sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage, and whether the number of affected organ systems was significantly associated with mortality rate.
Design—Multicenter retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated surgically because of sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Sepsis was diagnosed on the basis of results of bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid, gross evidence of gastrointestinal tract leakage at surgery, or both. Renal dysfunction was defined as a ≥ 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration after surgery. Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined as hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment. Respiratory dysfunction was defined as a need for supplemental oxygen administration or mechanical ventilation. Hepatic dysfunction was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration > 0.5 mg/dL. Dysfunction of coagulation was defined as prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, or platelet count ≤ 100,000/μL.
Results—89 (78%) dogs had dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems, and 57 (50%) dogs had MODS. Mortality rate increased as the number of dysfunctional organ systems increased. Mortality rate was 70% (40/57) for dogs with MODS and 25% (14/57) for dogs without.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death.