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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation of a Thoroughbred filly with acute hemoperitoneum from a splenic source immediately after racing.

ANIMAL

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred filly used for racing and that had raced shortly before presentation to the hospital.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

On presentation, the filly was quiet, alert, and responsive with a heart rate of 76 beats/min, pale mucous membranes, and absent borborygmi. All other physical examination parameters were within normal limits. Abdominal ultrasound was performed and revealed echogenic free abdominal fluid and a splenic hematoma. Abdominocentesis yielded sanguinous fluid with a PCV of 35%. The next day, repeat ultrasound revealed the splenic hematoma with capsular separation.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The filly was treated overnight with isotonic crystalloid fluids and aminocaproic acid (40 mg/kg, IV, slow bolus over 30 minutes followed by 20 mg/kg, IV, q 6 h), potassium penicillin (22,000 IU/kg, IV, q 6 h), gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), and omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h). The lowest PCV obtained from the filly was 36 hours after presentation. The filly stabilized with medical treatment and was discharged to a farm for further recuperation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

There are no published reports detailing hemoperitoneum of splenic origin in Thoroughbreds immediately after racing. Hemoperitoneum of splenic origin is not common in horses, with most cases of hemoperitoneum being secondary to acute trauma, neoplasia, parturition, or postoperative complications. While uncommon, this case raises awareness to another differential for a colicky horse immediately after racing.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate (1) variables associated with the likelihood of obtaining a positive culture, (2) commonly isolated microorganisms, and (3) antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from horses with presumptive synovial sepsis.

SAMPLES

Synovial fluid, synovium, and bone samples from equine cases with presumptive synovial sepsis submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center from 2000 to 2020 for microbial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing.

PROCEDURES

Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the effect of variables on the likelihood of positive culture. Frequency distributions for isolated organisms and antimicrobial resistance were generated. Multidrug resistance patterns and associations were assessed with association rule mining.

RESULTS

The positive culture rate for all samples was 37.4%, while the positive culture rate among samples confirmed to be septic by a combination of clinical pathological variables and case details was 43%. Blood culture vial submissions were 1.7 times more likely to yield a positive culture compared to samples submitted in a serum tube. Structure sampled, tissue submitted, and horse age were associated with a positive culture. Staphylococcus spp (23.7%), Streptococcus spp (22.4%), and Enterococcus spp (9.67%) were commonly isolated. Multidrug resistance prevalence decreased from 92% (2000 to 2009) to 76% (2010 to 2020) of gram-negative isolates and 60% (2000 to 2009) to 52% (2010 to 2020) of gram-positive isolates.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The positive culture rate from synovial fluid submissions with traditional sampling and culture methods remains low and may be optimized by submitting samples in blood culture vials. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was frequently observed but did not increase from the first to second decade for most genera.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research