Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline
(PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl-metabolite,
metabolite 1 (M1), in dogs after IV administration of a
single dose and oral administration of multiple doses.
Procedure—A crossover study design was used so
that each of the dogs received all treatments in random
order. A drug-free period of 5 days was allowed
between treatments. Treatments included IV administration
of a single dose of PTX (15 mg/kg of body
weight), oral administration of PTX with food at a
dosage of 15 mg/kg (q 8 h) for 5 days, and oral administration
of PTX without food at a dosage of 15 mg/kg
(q 8 h) for 5 days. Blood samples were taken at 0.25,
0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 hours after the first and last
dose of PTX was administered PO, and at 5, 10, 20, 40,
80, and 160 minutes after PTX was administered IV.
Results—PTX was rapidly absorbed and eliminated
after oral administration. Mean bioavailability after
oral administration ranged from 15 to 32% among
treatment groups and was not affected by the presence
of food. Higher plasma PTX concentrations and
apparent bioavailability were observed after oral
administration of the first dose, compared with the
last dose during the 5-day treatment regimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, oral
administration of 15 mg of PTX/kg results in plasma
concentrations similar to those produced by therapeutic
doses in humans, and a three-times-a-day dosing
regimen is the most appropriate. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:631–637)
Objective—To determine the effects of leuprolide
acetate, a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone
analog, in ferrets with adrenocortical diseases.
Animals—20 ferrets with adrenocortical disease
diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and plasma
sex hormone concentrations.
Procedure—Ferrets were treated with leuprolide
(100 µg, IM, once), and plasma hormone concentrations
were measured before and 3 to 6 weeks after
Results—Leuprolide treatment resulted in significant
reductions in plasma estradiol, 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone,
androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone
concentrations and eliminated or reduced clinical
signs associated with adrenocortical disease.
Decreases in vulvar swelling, pruritus, and undesirable
sexual behaviors and aggression were evident 14
days after treatment; hair regrowth was evident by 4
weeks after treatment. The response to treatment
was transitory, and clinical signs recurred in all ferrets.
Mean ± SEM time to recurrence was 3.7 ± 0.4
months (range, 1.5 to 8 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that leuprolide can be safely used to temporarily
eliminate clinical signs and reduce sex hormone concentrations
in ferrets with adrenocortical diseases.
However, the safety of long-term leuprolide use in ferrets
has not been investigated, and the long-term
effects of leuprolide in ferrets with nodular adrenal
gland hyperplasia or adrenal gland tumors are
unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1272–1274)
Objective—To describe the characteristics and frequency of gross uterine anomalies in cats and dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.
Design—Prospective and retrospective case series.
Animals—53,258 cats and 32,660 dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy at 26 clinics in the United States and Canada during 2007.
Procedures—Clinics prospectively reported gross anomalies and submitted tissues from abnormal reproductive tracts identified during surgery. Records from a feral cat spay-neuter clinic were evaluated retrospectively.
Results—Suspected congenital anomalies of the uterus were identified in 0.09% (49/53,258) of female cats and 0.05% (15/32,660) of female dogs. Uterine anomalies identified included unicornuate uterus (33 cats and 11 dogs), segmental agenesis of 1 uterine horn (15 cats and 3 dogs), and uterine horn hypoplasia (1 cat and 1 dog). Ipsilateral renal agenesis was present in 29.4% (10/34) of cats and 50.0% (6/12) of dogs with uterine anomalies in which kidneys were evaluated. Mummified ectopic fetuses were identified in 4 cats with uterine anomalies. Both ovaries and both uterine tubes were present in most animals with uterine anomalies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urogenital anomalies were twice as common in cats as in dogs. Identification of uterine developmental anomalies in dogs and cats should trigger evaluation of both kidneys and both ovaries because ipsilateral renal agenesis is common, but both ovaries are likely to be present and should be removed during ovariohysterectomy.
A 12-year-old castrated male Quarter Horse was examined because of a puncture wound over the left maxillary sinus ventral to the facial crest. Left nasal epistaxis was noticed the morning of the examination. Physical and oral examinations revealed that the horse also had a firm, movable mass that communicated with the oral cavity. The mass was rostral to the puncture wound. Signs of pain were not elicited during examination. The owner reported that the mass had been evident for approximately 10 years. Digital radiographic images of the skull were obtained (Figure 1).
A 3-year-old 817-kg (1,797-lb) Angus bull was evaluated at the J.T. Vaughan Large Animal Teaching Hospital at Auburn University because of an inability to copulate. According to the owners, the bull had successfully sired calves the previous breeding season but had not been observed successfully breeding females during the current season. The owners indicated that the bull displayed acceptable libido and would mount cows normally, but he failed to extend the penis or to achieve intromission. There was no history of previous injury or penile trauma.
The bull had no evidence of muscle atrophy. No genital abnormalities were identified
Objective—To quantify angular excursions; net joint
moments; and powers across the stifle, tarsal, and
metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in Labrador
Retrievers and Greyhounds and investigate differences
in joint mechanics between these 2 breeds of
Animals—12 clinically normal dogs (6 Greyhounds
and 6 Labrador Retrievers) with no history of hind
Procedure—Small retroreflective markers were
applied to the skin over the pelvic limb joints, and a 4-
camera kinematic system captured data at 200 Hz in
tandem with force platform data while the dogs trotted
on a runway. Breed-specific morphometric data
were combined with kinematic and force data in an
inverse-dynamics solution for stance-phase net joint
moments and powers at the stifle, tarsal, and MTP
Results—There were gross differences in kinematic
patterns between Greyhounds and Labradors. At the
stifle and tarsal joints, moment and power patterns
were similar in shape, but amplitudes were larger for
the Greyhounds. The MTP joint was a net absorber of
energy, and this was greater in the Greyhounds.
Greyhounds had a positive phase across the stifle,
tarsal, and MTP joints at the end of stance for an
active push-off, whereas for the Labrador Retrievers,
the only positive phase was across the tarsus, and
this was small, compared with values for the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gross differences
in pelvic limb mechanics are evident between
Greyhounds and Labrador Retrievers. Joint kinetics in
specific dogs should be compared against breed-specific
patterns. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1563–1571)
Case Description—A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated because of placental abnormalities and a retained placental remnant.
Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the placenta yielded pure growth of Amycolatopsis spp. Histologic examination of the placenta revealed a focally expanding chorionitis with intralesional gram-positive filamentous bacilli and multifocal allantoic adenomatous hyperplasia on the apposing allantoic surface.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with lavage and oxytocin resulted in expulsion of the placental remnant within hours of parturition. The mare did not become pregnant again despite multiple breedings. The foal appeared healthy but died of complications during an elective surgical procedure at 7 weeks of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, all previously confirmed cases of nocardioform placentitis have been in mares bred in the central Kentucky region. Indications that the pathogen in the mare reported here is a different species than that isolated in Kentucky suggest that this is an emerging disease. Mares with nocardioform placentitis usually do not have the same clinical signs as mares with placentitis resulting from an ascending pathogen.
A 15-year-old Thoroughbred mare at 283 days of gestation was examined to determine the cause of frank, hemorrhagic vaginal discharge. The mare was from a large breeding farm and had been housed with other broodmares, none of which had any signs of reproductive problems. The mare had had 8 previous pregnancies, all with no complications.
The hemorrhagic discharge had been evident for 2 days and was believed to be increasing in quantity. The referring veterinarian had detected placental abnormalities during ultrasonography. The mare had no other outward signs of disease and did not appear to be in discomfort.