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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


At an abattoir, lesion specimens from 140 condemned sheep livers were collected for bacteriologie culture and for pathologic examination. Grossly, 23 lesions were abscesses; from 9 of which, Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A (3 in pure culture and 6 in mixed culture) was isolated and from 14 of which, biovar B (6 in pure culture and 8 in mixed culture) was isolated. Escherichia coli was the predominant facultative anaerobic bacterium and Clostridium perfringens was the predominant obligate anaerobic bacterium isolated from the 14 lesions with mixed bacterial infection. Histologically, these lesions had a core of coagulation necrosis, encircled by a zone of necrotic phagocytic cells and bacteria with cellular characteristics of F necrophorum biovars A or B, and a connective tissue capsule.

Of the 117 lesions without F necrophorum, 49 were culture-positive (for other organisms) and 69 were culturenegative. These 117 lesions were fibrous and were smaller than the 23 abscesses. A variety of gram-positive and gram-negative facultative anaerobic and obligate anaerobic bacteria was isolated from the culture-positive lesions, but always in low numbers. Eleven culture-negative and 18 culture-positive lesions were examined and had histologic characteristics of parasite-induced granulomas, with numerous eosinophils and epithelioid giant cells.

Results of the study indicated that the histologic appearance of ovine hepatic lesions with F necrophorum was similar to bovine liver abscesses caused by F necrophorum, but unlike bovine liver abscesses, F necrophorum biovar B was isolated more frequently than was biovar A and often in pure culture. Most of the lesions in the condemned livers were parasite-induced granulomas.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prevalence of and clinical features associated with incidental adrenal gland lesions (IAGLs) discovered during abdominal ultrasonography in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—151 dogs with an IAGL and 400 control dogs.

Procedures—Reports of ultrasonographic examinations of the abdomen of dogs performed during a 3.5-year period were reviewed. Adrenal glands were classified as having an IAGL if a nodule or mass was described or the width of either gland was ≥ 10 mm. For dogs with an IAGL, information regarding signalment, concurrent disorders, and outcome was obtained from the medical record. Findings were compared with those in a control population of 400 dogs examined during the same period.

Results—An IAGL was detected in 151 of 3,748 (4%) dogs. Dogs with an IAGL were significantly older (median age, 11.25 years) and heavier (median body weight, 21 kg [46.2 lb]) than the control population (median age, 9.5 years; median body weight, 14 kg [30.8 lb]). Malignant tumors were reported in 6 of 20 (30%) dogs that underwent adrenal glandectomy or necropsy and had a maximum IAGL dimension that ranged from 20 to 46 mm; benign lesions all had a maximum dimension < 20 mm. Various coincidental conditions were reported in dogs with an IAGL, including nonadrenal gland malignant neoplasia in 43 (28.5%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IAGLs were more likely in dogs ≥ 9 years of age. On the basis of this small data set, malignancy should be suspected for IAGLs ≥ 20 mm in maximum dimension.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To describe the long-term outcome in dogs with naturally developing multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS).


Retrospective case series.


30 dogs with multiple PSS.


Medical records of dogs with multiple PSS were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by 1 or more of the following methods: recheck at the veterinary teaching hospital (n = 6) or telephone contact with the referring veterinarian (n = 18) or owner (n = 10). The χ 2 or Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used to determine the association of clinical factors with long-term outcome. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method.


Median age at diagnosis was 1 year. Findings on exploratory surgery in 25 dogs included ascites; numerous tortuous vessels connecting the portal vein with systemic veins; a small, misshapen liver; and an enlarged portal vein. The most common lesions on histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue specimens were hepatocellular atrophy, portal vascular duplication, cirrhosis, inflammation, and bile duct proliferation. Twelve dogs were treated surgically with vena caval banding, whereas 13 dogs were treated conservatively with dietary restriction of protein and administration of antibiotics, diuretics, and other drugs. Long-term survival and quality of life were similar in dogs from both treatment groups. Median follow-up interval in dogs that survived hospitalization was 24 months (range, 1 to 54 months).

Clinical Implications

On the basis of these findings, vena caval banding in dogs with multiple PSS is not superior to medical and nutritional treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1849-1854)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association