(1) Determine if a relationship exists between ionized calcium (iCa) and pancreatic lipase (cPLI) concentration in dogs, and (2) assess for correlation between resolving hypercalcemia and cPLI concentrations in dogs after treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
Phase I, 44 residual serum samples (collected April 2023) from client-owned dogs with a clinical indication for cPLI quantification. Phase II, 24 residual serum samples (collected August 2022 through February 2023) from client-owned dogs with PHPT pre- and postcorrection of hypercalcemia.
Serum cPLI and iCa concentrations were measured via the Spec cPL assay and a spectrophotometric method respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to investigate if there was a correlation between serum calcium and cPLI concentrations. A paired t-test was used to investigate the effect of the resolution of hypercalcemia on serum cPLI concentrations.
Phase I, serum cPLI concentrations were negatively correlated with serum iCa concentrations (r = −.429, 95% CI [−.64, −.14], P = .005) in dogs with a clinical indication for cPLI quantification. Phase II, median serum cPLI concentrations were higher before (median: 228.5 μg/L, IQR: 351.3 μg/L) than after (median: 141.0 μg/L, interquartile ranges (IQR): 279.5 μg/L) management of hypercalcemia (PHPT model). However, the decrease in cPLI concentration was not statistically significant (P = .70).
Calcium depletion may result in an inverse relationship between serum cPLI and iCa concentrations in dogs with a clinical indication for cPLI quantification. Hypercalcemia may be associated with an above reference interval cPLI concentration in some dogs.
To determine breed-specific reference intervals for whole blood (WB) and plasma taurine concentrations in adult, overtly healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and determine whether taurine concentrations differ across preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) stages or between CKCSs eating diets that meet World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) nutritional guidelines versus other diets.
200 privately owned CKCSs.
Clinically healthy adult CKCSs were recruited prospectively. Diet and supplement history was collected. Dogs were staged by echocardiography using MMVD consensus guidelines. Taurine concentrations were measured in deproteinized lithium heparin WB and plasma samples with the postcolumn ninhydrin derivatization method on a dedicated amino acid analyzer.
There were 12 stage A (6%), 150 stage B1 (75%), and 38 stage B2 (19%) CKCSs. Seventy-eight dogs (39%) were reported by their owners to be eating diets meeting WSAVA nutritional guidelines; 116 (58%) were not. Taurine concentrations in plasma (P = .444) and WB (P = .073) were not significantly different across MMVD stages or between CKCSs eating diets meeting WSAVA nutritional guidelines versus other diets (P = .345 and P = .527, respectively). Reference intervals for WB taurine (152 to 373 µM) and plasma taurine (51 to 217 µM) concentrations in CKCSs were generated.
In CKCSs, taurine concentrations do not differ significantly based on preclinical MMVD stage, nor do they differ significantly based on consumption of a diet that does or does not meet WSAVA nutritional guidelines.
Objective—To assess intestinal mucosal function by measuring permeability and absorptive capacity in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) before and after treatment and to determine whether those variables were correlated with clinical disease activity or histologic scoring of intestinal biopsy specimens.
Animals—29 dogs with CE.
Procedure—Dogs were designated as having dietresponsive CE or CE requiring glucorticoid treatment. Severity of clinical signs was assessed by calculating the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI). Histologic severity of intestinal infiltration was assessed before and after 4 weeks of treatment in the diet-responsive group and before and after 10 weeks of treatment in the glucocorticoid group. Gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity were assessed by use of intragastric administration of a solution containing lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, 3-O-methylglucose, and sucrose. Urine was collected 6 hours after administration of the sugar solution to determine urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose (L:R), xylose-to-methylglucose (X:M), and sucrose-to-methylglucose (S:M) ratios.
Results—Median CIBDAI scores decreased significantly in both groups of dogs after treatment. However, the median histologic grade of intestinal biopsy specimens did not change with treatment in either group. There were no significant differences in L:R, X:M, or S:M ratios after treatment in either group and no significant correlations between L:R, X:M, or S:M ratios and CIBDAI or histologic scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of tests for intestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity were not useful indicators of clinical disease activity as assessed by the CIBDAI or the sever ity of infiltration as indicated by histologic evaluation.
To determine the effects of leukoreduction on N-methylhistamine (NMH; a stable histamine metabolite) concentration in units of canine whole blood during storage and incubation at room temperature (approx 22 °C) to simulate temperature conditions during transfusion.
8 healthy adult Walker Hounds.
A standard unit of blood (450 mL) was obtained from each dog twice, with at least 28 days between donations. Blood units collected from 4 dogs during the first donation underwent leukoreduction, whereas the blood units collected from the other 4 dogs did not undergo leukoreduction, prior to storage at 4 °C. The alternate treatment was applied to blood units collected during the second donation. A sample from each unit was obtained for determination of plasma NMH concentration the day of donation (before and after leukoreduction when applicable) and before and after incubation at room temperature for 5 hours on days 14 and 28 of storage.
Units that underwent leukoreduction had substantially lower leukocyte and platelet counts than nonleukoreduced units. Plasma NMH concentration increased immediately after leukoreduction but did not change significantly during the subsequent 28 days of storage, nor did it differ between units that did and did not undergo leukoreduction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Leukoreduction and simulated transfusion temperature did not affect the histamine load in units of canine whole blood during the first 28 days of storage. Further research is necessary to determine whether histamine contributes to the development and severity of blood transfusion reactions in dogs.