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  • Author or Editor: James Hope x
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The duration of the incubation period for scrapie, a fatal transmissible neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats, is mainly determined by the Sip gene, which has 2 alleles (sA—susceptible and pA—resistant). A diagnostic test is not available to detect scrapie in live animals. We analyzed genomic dna extracted from frozen sheep brains collected from Cheviot sheep of the United States that had been inoculated with the SSBP/1 scrapie inoculum. Digestion of the dna with EcoRI or HindIII followed by the addition of a scrapie-associated fibril protein (PrP)-specific marker probe, yielded fragments of 6.8 (e1) and 4.0 (e3) kb, or 5.0 (h1) and 3.4 (h2) kb, respectively. Fragments e1 and h2 were associated with the histopathologic diagnosis of scrapie, and fragments e3 and h1 were associated with survival. A valine/alanine polymorphism within the PrP coding region that resulted in a BspHI site was further used to determine the genotype of these Cheviot sheep. Digestion of polymerase chain reaction fragments with BspHI resulted in an undigested fragment b– (0.840 kb), digested fragments b+ (0.460 and 0.380 kb), or both types of fragments. Survival time of b+/b+ homozygous sheep was significantly (P < 0.01) shorter (218 ± 26.0 days) than survival time for b−/b− sheep (> 700 days after inoculation). Results indicated that b+ and b− are markers for the Sip sA and pA alleles, respectively. The intermediate duration of the incubation period for heterozygous sheep (b+/b−; 342.9 ± 25.3 days) indicated that the Sip sA allele is expressed codominantly to the Sip pA allele.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe a percutaneously controlled static hydraulic urethral sphincter (SHUS) and evaluate urodynamic effects of the SHUS in canine cadavers.

Sample Population—Cadavers of 6 adult female dogs.

Procedure—Cadavers were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanatized. Baseline maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and cystourethral leak point pressure (CLPP) were measured by use of a urethral pressure profilometer. An SHUS system was constructed by use of a silicone vascular occluder and subcutaneous infusion port. The SHUS system was then placed around the pelvic urethra in each cadaver. Measurements of MUCP and CLPP were repeated after varying occlusion of the SHUS (0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion). Baseline MUCP and CLPP values were compared with values obtained at 0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion of the SHUS by use of repeatedmeasures ANOVA.

Results—Mean ± SD MUCP for canine cadavers was 7 ± 1.3 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 127 ± 53 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean CLPP was 11 ± 8.6 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 73 ± 38 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean MUCP and CLPP were significantly associated with the amount of occlusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SHUS had positive effects on MUCP and CLPP in canine cadavers. Therefore, additional evaluation of the SHUS in live dogs is warranted. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:283–288)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research