Case Description—An 18-year-old mare was evaluated for an oral mass that developed after extraction of a broken incisor.
Clinical Findings—An ulcerated, firm, darkly pigmented, approximately 5-cm-diameter spherical mass involved the gingiva lateral and dorsal to the right first to third maxillary incisors. Osteolysis of the roots of the first and second right maxillary incisors and periosteal proliferation of the adjacent premaxilla margins were apparent on radiographs. Histologic examination of the mass revealed multiple coalescing and ramifying foci of abscess formation, each containing a well-defined, discrete, black mass (2 to 7 mm in diameter). Myriad fungal hyphae enmeshed in a black, granular, cementlike material were within each of the black structures. Mycetoma was the histologic diagnosis. The causative agent could not be identified via culture because of lack of distinguishing characteristics. Fungal DNA was isolated from frozen fungal cultures and paraffin sections. The D1/D2 domains of the large subunit P gene rDNA were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of both isolates were 96% homologous with those of Phialophora oxyspora.
Treatment and Outcome—The mass was surgically excised, the local area curetted, and the wound allowed to heal by second intention. Postoperative treatment consisted of administration of phenylbutazone and IV administration of sodium iodide followed by oral administration of potassium iodide. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year later.
Clinical Relevance—Mycetomata should be a differential diagnosis for equine gingival masses. Identification of the fungal agent can be critical for selection of optimal treatments. Molecular methods may permit definitive identification when standard phenotypic-based identification criteria are inconclusive.
Objective—To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Design—Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA.
Animals—The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA.
Procedures—Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Results—Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.
OBJECTIVE To determine brain region affinity for and retention of gadolinium in dogs after administration of gadodiamide and whether formalin fixation affects quantification.
ANIMALS 14 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES 13 dogs received gadodiamide (range, 0.006 to 0.1 mmol/kg, IV); 1 control dog received a placebo. Dogs received gadodiamide 3 to 7 days (n = 8) or 9 hours (5) before euthanasia and sample collection. Brain regions were analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy. Associations between dose, time to euthanasia, and gadolinium retention quantities (before and after fixation in 5 dogs) were evaluated.
RESULTS Gadolinium retention was seen in all brain regions at all doses, except for the control dog. Exposure 3 to 7 days before euthanasia resulted in 1.7 to 162.5 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue (dose-dependent effect), with cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity. Exposure 9 hours before euthanasia resulted in 67.3 to 1,216.4 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue without dose dependency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed gadolinium in examined tissues. Fixation did not affect quantification in samples immersed for up to 69 days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gadodiamide exposure resulted in gadolinium retention in the brain of healthy dogs. Cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity was detected with dose dependency only in dogs exposed 3 to 7 days before euthanasia. Fixation had no effect on quantification when tissues were immersed for up to 69 days. Physiologic mechanisms for gadolinium retention remained unclear. The importance of gadolinium retention requires further investigation.