To perform a retrospective, multicenter observational study that compares the agreement of rectal temperature with the temperature measured with noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) in a population of dogs and cats.
168 dogs and 61 cats.
NCIT readings were taken in triplicate from the medial pinna, then rectal temperature was taken with a standard digital rectal thermometer (RT). Ambient room temperature, signalment, presence of icterus, skin and coat color, reason for presentation, and final diagnosis were recorded.
In dogs, median (range) body temperature reflected by RT and NCIT measurements was 38.4 °C (33.4 to 40.3 °C) and 36.3 °C (30.8 to 40.0 °C), respectively. In cats, median (range) body temperature reflected by RT and NCIT measurements was 38.3 °C (36.2 to 40.0 °C) and 35.7 °C (31.8 to 38.0 °C), respectively. There was a weak positive correlation between body temperatures measured by NCIT and RT in dogs (Kendall tau = 0.154), but there was no correlation in cats (Kendall tau = –0.01). A significant, albeit weak, agreement was seen between temperature measured by NCIT and RT in dogs (Kappa value, 0.05), but not cats (Kappa value, –0.08). In both species, NCIT tended to underread body temperature, compared with RT (dogs: mean ± SD bias –2.2 ± 1.51 °C; cats: mean bias –2.7 ± 1.44 °C), with the degree of low measurements lessening as body temperature increased.
Given both poor correlation and agreement in body temperature measured by NCIT and rectal thermometer, NCIT measurements cannot be recommended at the current time as a means to determine body temperature in dogs and cats.
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.