To determine the optimal intercostal space (ICS) for thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for lung lobectomy in cats.
8 cat cadavers.
Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. A 5-cm minithoracotomy incision was made in the middle third of ICS 4 through 7 on the left side and 4 through 8 on the right side, and a wound retractor device was placed. A camera port was made in the middle third of ICS 9. Each lung lobe was sequentially exteriorized at each respective ICS. A thoracoabdominal stapler was placed to simulate a lung lobectomy, and distance from the stapler anvil to the hilus was measured.
For the left cranial lung lobe, there was no significant difference in median distance from the stapler anvil to the pulmonary hilus for ICS 4 through 6. Simulated lobectomy of the left caudal lung lobe performed at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 4 and 7. Simulated lobectomy of the right cranial and right middle lung lobes performed at ICS 4 and 5 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 7. Simulated lobectomy of the accessory and right caudal lung lobes at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance than for lobectomy performed at ICS 8.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
An optimal ICS for a minithoracotomy incision was determined for thoracoscopic-assisted lung lobectomy in cats.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.
ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.
PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.
RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.