Objective—To describe the clinical findings in horses
with small intestinal strangulation through mesenteric
rents, and to determine the recurrence and survival
rates after surgery.
Animals—15 horses with small intestinal obstruction
via a mesenteric rent.
Procedure—Medical records of horses with obstruction
of the small intestine via a mesenteric rent
between January 1990 and December 1997 were
reviewed. The signalment, history, initial physical
examination findings, results of abdominocentesis,
and clinical laboratory values were recorded. Surgical
findings, including location of the mesenteric rent and
surgical procedure performed, were recorded. Shortand
long-term survival rates were calculated.
Results—Most mesenteric rents were located in the
mesentery of the small intestine (13 horses). Two
horses had multiple mesenteric defects. Seven horses
were euthanatized at surgery because of an inability to
reduce the entrapped intestine (3 horses), uncontrollable
hemorrhage (2), inability to close the rent (1), and
the amount of compromised intestine involved (1).
Seven horses required intestinal resection and anastomosis.
The median length of intestine resected was
2.6 m (range, 0.6 to 4.5 m). The mesenteric rents created
during resection were not closed in 2 horses.
One of these 2 horses subsequently developed a
strangulating obstruction through the open rent.
Seven of 15 horses in our study were discharged
from the hospital (ie, short-term survival rate of 47%
[7/15]). Long-term follow-up information was available
for 5 of the 7 horses (follow-up duration of 5 months
to 9 years), of which 2 died as a result of colic, and 1
horse was euthanatized because of severe arthritis (ie,
long-term survival rate of 40% [2/5]).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Inability to
reduce the intestinal obstruction, severe hemorrhage
from the mesentery, and the length of intestine
involved are the main factors that decrease survival
rates in horses with small intestinal strangulation
caused by mesenteric rents. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Investigate long-term complications, survival times, general health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes, and longevity in female dogs and cats (bitches and queens, respectively) following hospital discharge after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) for pyometra.
306 pet-owner–completed surveys and corresponding medical records for 234 bitches and 72 queens treated with OHE for pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.
A telephone and online survey was conducted to gather data about pet owners’ perception of pet health and QoL following OHE for pyometra, and potential associations between survey results and medical record data were evaluated. Median survival time at a given age at OHE for pyometra was calculated with the use of maximum likelihood estimation of a survival-time regression model.
72 of the 121 (60%) eligible owners of queens and 234 of the 390 (60%) eligible owners of bitches completed the survey. Most owners reported that at the time of the survey, their pet’s health and QoL were better or the same as before pyometra. Reported health and QoL outcomes were similar for pets > 8 versus ≤ 8 years of age.
Our findings indicated that bitches and queens undergoing OHE for pyometra at older ages and without other severe health issues can expect to live their full life span. Veterinarians in private practice could expect similar outcomes.
Objective—To develop an endoscopic technique for
use in monitoring devlopment of gastric ulcers via a
gastric cannula during withholding of feed and administration
of a finely ground diet to pigs.
Animals—6 pigs weighing between 60 and 70 kg.
Procedure—A gastric cannula was surgically inserted
adjacent to the pars esophagea in each pig. Pigs were
fed a finely ground diet for two 7-day periods that were
separated by a 48-hour period during which feed was
withheld. Endoscopic examination via the gastric cannula
was used to monitor development of ulcers in the
pars esophageal region of the pigs during the 48-hour
period of feed withhold and subsequent 7-day feeding
period. An ulcer score was assigned during each endoscopic
examination. A final examination was performed
during necropsy and compared with results for the final
Results—Consumption of a finely ground diet for 7
days resulted in progressive erosive damage to the
pars esophageal region of the stomach. Further significant
increases in ulcerative damage were detected
after 24 and 48 hours of withholding of feed. Final
examination during necropsy did not reveal significant
differences from results obtained during the final
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopic
examination via a gastric cannula was an effective
means of monitoring ulcer development in the pars
esophagea of pigs. Feeding a finely ground diet and
withholding of feed induced endoscopically observable
ulcers in the stratified squamous epithelial region
of the stomach. Direct visual examination during
necropsy confirmed the accuracy of endoscopic
examination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1076–1082)
To describe findings, determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge, and identify prognostic indicators of poor outcomes for female cats (queens) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.
134 queens with pyometra diagnosed between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.
The medical records were retrospectively searched and data including patient history, clinical signs, blood work results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospitalization, and uterine rupture) were collected from medical records. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of outcomes.
Dehydration (69% [83/121]) and absolute neutrophilia (83% [52/63]) were commonly reported. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 100% (126/126; 95% CI, 97% to 100%) for queens treated with OHE; 33% (41/126) were hospitalized ≥ 2 nights, and 4% (5/120) had uterine rupture. Queens with abnormal serum ionized calcium concentration or signs of depressed mentation had greater odds (OR of 4.64 and 2.26, respectively) of ≥ 2 nights’ hospitalization. Queens with high rectal temperature, closed pyometra, or heart murmur had greater odds (OR of 35.66, 17.37, or 16.06, respectively) of uterine rupture.
Our findings indicated that OHE for pyometra in queens was highly successful even when performed in a nonspecialty hospital with high-quality basic supportive care, and we believe most general practitioners who offer OHE could expect to see similar outcomes. With more general-practice veterinarians comfortable treating pyometra in their clinics, OHE for pyometra will be available to more pets, ultimately saving more lives.
To determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge and identify indicators associated with poor outcomes among female dogs (bitches) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.
405 bitches diagnosed with pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital from January 1, 2017, to February 8, 2019.
For this retrospective study, medical records were searched and data collected including patient history, clinical signs, serum biochemical analyses results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospital stay, and uterine rupture). Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations and identify potential predictive variables.
The rate of survival to hospital discharge for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE was 97% (394/405); 44% (174/394) stayed in the hospital ≥ 2 nights, and 3% (11/390) had a ruptured uterus. Bitches with a high BUN concentration or heart murmur had greater odds of death after OHE; however, the model had low predictive power. Those with uterine rupture, inappetence, high concentrations of BUN or serum creatinine, low PCV, or dehydration had greater odds of hospitalization ≥ 2 nights. There were no significant predictors of uterine rupture.
The rate of survival to hospital discharge was high for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE in a nonspecialized setting; therefore, general practitioners could expect similar outcomes. With this important procedure widely available in general practices, more pets can receive treatment for this life-threatening disease.