Objective—To compare the effects of oral administration
of omeprazole and ranitidine on gastric squamous
ulceration in Thoroughbreds in race training.
Design—Modified crossover study.
Animals—60 Thoroughbreds in race training with
gastric squamous mucosal ulceration.
Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated into 3
groups. Group 1 received no treatment for 28 days followed
by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg [1.8
mg/lb], PO, once daily) for 28 days; group 2 received
omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, once daily) for 28 days followed
by no treatment for 28 days; and group 3 received
ranitidine (6.6 mg/kg [3.0 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 28 days
followed by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO,
once daily) for 28 days. Ulceration was assessed endoscopically
at days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Lesions were scored
from 0 (no ulceration) to 3 (severe ulceration).
Results—After the initial 28 days of treatment, the
decrease in ulcer severity was significantly greater
after omeprazole treatment than after ranitidine treatment.
Ulcer severity decreased significantly in group
3 horses after 14 days of treatment with omeprazole.
Discontinuation of omeprazole resulted in worsening
of ulcer scores; however, ulcer scores at completion
of the study were less than at day 0. Horses that
received omeprazole after 28 days of ranitidine treatment
had a further reduction in ulcer severity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole
was more effective than ranitidine in healing gastric
squamous ulcers in Thoroughbreds in race training.
Improvement was detected by 14 days and persisted
in most of the group 2 horses for at least 28 days after
omeprazole treatment was discontinued. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2005;227:1636–1639)
Objective—To establish a clinical severity index that correlates severity of body system abnormalities with outcome in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and determine the usefulness of serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentration as an objective measure of AP severity.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—61 client-owned dogs with ultrasonographically or histologically confirmed AP.
Procedures—Medical records of AP-affected dogs were reviewed, and signalment, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome (death or discharge from the hospital) were evaluated. The correlation of specific abnormalities in endocrine, hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems; local pancreatic complications; and intestinal integrity were evaluated, and a clinical severity index was developed for AP in dogs. The severity index score was compared with outcome and, for 12 dogs, with serum C-RP concentration.
Results—The clinical severity index had a good correlation with outcome and interval from hospital admission until end point (days until outcome), but there was no difference in days until outcome between survivors and nonsurvivors. All 12 dogs evaluated had high serum C-RP concentration, but this variable was not related to outcome; however, within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, serum C-RP concentration in survivors and nonsurvivors differed significantly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among AP-affected dogs, the clinical severity index may be useful for treatment comparisons and prediction of intensive management requirements. Serum C-RP concentration was best related to AP severity within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, but daily measurement may be more useful for monitoring progress.
Objective—To indirectly assess the pancreatic response in healthy dogs that were fed diets of different fat compositions with or without supplemental pancreatic enzymes and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).
Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were fed 4 diets once in random order at 1-week intervals; food was withheld from the dogs for ≥ 12 hours prior to the feeding of each diet. Diets A and B contained 16% and 5% crude fat, respectively; diet C was composed of diet A with pancreatic enzymes; and diet D was composed of diet B with pancreatic enzymes and MCTs. Serum canine trypsin–like immunoreactivity (cTLI) and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations were measured before (0 hours) and at 1 to 2 and 6 hours after feeding. Serum gastrin concentration was measured at 0 hours and at 5 to 10 minutes and 1 to 2 hours after feeding. A gastrin assay validation study was performed to confirm accuracy of test results in dogs. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures general ANOVA.
Results—Serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in the dogs did not differ among the different diets fed, among dogs, or over time. When multiple comparisons were analyzed, diet D caused the least amount of measurable pancreatic response, although this difference was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not indicate a significant effect of dietary fat content or addition of supplemental MCT oil or pancreatic enzymes in diets on serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in healthy dogs.
Objective—To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)–associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners.
Animals—100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old.
Procedures—Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs.
Results—22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.