To compare the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) combinations administered as constant rate infusions (CRIs) during and after veterinary procedures on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs.
32 clinically normal client-owned dogs undergoing nonemergent procedures.
Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an MLK or FLK combination (16 dogs/group). During the procedure, each dog received 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg/h; both groups), ketamine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg/h; both groups), and morphine (0.36 mg/kg/h; MLK group) or fentanyl (4 μg/kg/h; FLK group) via CRI for analgesia; esophageal temperature was maintained at 37° to 39°C. At extubation, each drug dose in each assigned combination was halved and administered (via CRI) for 12 additional hours for postprocedure analgesia. Rectal temperature and other data were recorded at baseline (prior to administration of premedicants), extubation (0 hours), and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours thereafter.
Mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at each postextubation time point for the MLK group, compared with corresponding values for the FLK group. Compared with the baseline value, mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours for the FLK group and at all postprocedure time points for the MLK group. Hypothermia (rectal temperature < 37°C) was detected at ≥ 1 postprocedure time point more often in dogs in the MLK group (9/16) than in the FLK group (1/16).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Dogs that received an MLK combination for analgesia during and after a veterinary procedure developed hypothermia more commonly than did dogs that received an FLK combination under similar conditions.
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.
ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment).
PROCEDURES 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells.
RESULTS None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old 2.08-kg (4.58-lb) neutered male Lionhead-mix pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was examined because of sneezing and increased respiratory effort.
CLINICAL FINDINGS On the basis of the rabbit's radiographic findings, a diagnosis of diaphragmatic retroperitoneal perirenal fat and kidney herniation was made. Nine months later, physical examination revealed increased respiratory rate and effort and slightly decreased body weight. Thoracic radiography revealed decreased lung aeration and further craniomedial displacement of the right kidney, compared with the initial evaluation findings, suggesting progressive herniation of the retroperitoneal perirenal fat.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME During exploratory celiotomy, a tear in the right dorsal tendinous portion of the diaphragm was noted. The right kidney and perirenal fat were found to be displaced into the thorax. Diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy was performed after replacement of the right kidney and the perirenal fat in the retroperitoneal space. The rabbit recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and surgery. Clinical signs did not recur during the following 16 months.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE For rabbits with increased respiratory effort, diaphragmatic retroperitoneal perirenal fat and kidney herniation should be included as a differential diagnosis. As illustrated by the case described in this report, appropriate surgical management can provide a successful outcome for affected pet rabbits.