To investigate whether serum cortisol (SC) concentration is a useful prognostic indicator for survival versus nonsurvival to hospital discharge in critically ill dogs.
229 client-owned dogs.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify critically ill dogs that were hospitalized between January 2010 and May 2018 and that had SC concentrations measured ≤ 3 days after admission. Results for SC concentrations were compared for dogs grouped by survival versus nonsurvival to hospital discharge, with versus without sepsis, and other variables of interest. The predictive value of SC concentration for nonsurvival to hospital discharge was assessed (OR, sensitivity, and specificity) for cutoffs determined from a ROC curve or reference limit.
Median SC concentration was higher in dogs that did not survive to hospital discharge (8.5 μg/dL; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 4.8 to 11.8 μg/dL), compared with concentration in those that were discharged alive (4.5 μg/dL; interquartile range, 2.5 to 6.9 μg/dL). The area under the ROC curve was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.81) for SC concentration predicting nonsurvival. The calculated optimum cutoff of SC concentration was 7.6 μg/dL, at which the OR, sensitivity, and specificity for nonsurvival were 5.4 (95% CI, 2.7 to 10.9), 58%, and 80%, respectively. Alternatively, when the upper reference limit for SC concentration (5.8 μg/dL) was used as the cutoff, the OR, sensitivity, and specificity for nonsurvival were 3.6 (95% CI, 1.8 to 7.1), 67%, and 64%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that SC concentration could be used as part of an overall assessment of prognosis in critically ill dogs.
To assess the diagnostic performance of a benchtop fluorescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer (AIA-360; Tosoh Bioscience Inc) for the measurement of serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.
173 client-owned dogs (20 with hypoadrenocorticism and 153 with nonadrenal illness).
Medical records of all dogs that underwent an ACTH stimulation test between June 2015 and October 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Dogs were excluded if the ACTH stimulation test was performed on the basis of a suspicion of hypercortisolism, serum cortisol concentrations were measured using an analyzer other than the one assessed in the present study, or dogs had received medication known to affect the pituitary-adrenal axis in the 4 weeks, preceding ACTH stimulation testing. The diagnostic performance of the benchtop analyzer was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios at various cutoff points.
Serum resting cortisol cutoff point concentrations of 0.8 μg/dL (22 nmol/L), 1 μg/dL (28 nmol/L), and 2 μg/dL (55 nmol/L) had a sensitivity of 100%. An optimal serum resting cortisol cutoff point of 0.58 μg/dL (16 nmol/L) had a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 100%, 97%, and 30.6 and 0.0, respectively.
Findings indicated that previously derived cutoff points could be used with excellent sensitivity to exclude hypoadrenocorticism in this population of dogs when serum cortisol concentration was measured with the evaluated benchtop analyzer. An ACTH stimulation test may need to only be performed to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism if resting serum cortisol concentration is ≤ 0.58 μg/dL when measured with the evaluated benchtop analyzer.