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  • Author or Editor: Harm HogenEsch x
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To use proteomic analysis to identify qualitatively and quantitatively mammalian protein components of commercial veterinary vaccines against canine distemper, leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies.


25 licensed veterinary vaccines (from 4 different manufacturers) against canine distemper and leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies (3-year and 1-year durations of immunity).


Duplicate samples from a single-lot vial of each vaccine were prepared by acetone precipitation and proteolysis with trypsin and Lys-C protease mix. Peptides mixtures (1 μg) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy data were searched against a Bos taurus protein database using MaxQuant to identify and quantify mammalian proteins in the vaccines. Identified proteins were classified by function and network analysis to visualize interactions.


The largest number of mammalian proteins was identified in 3-year rabies vaccines (median, 243 proteins; range, 184 to 339 proteins) and 1-year rabies vaccines (median, 193 proteins; range, 169 to 350 proteins). Borrelia and leptospirosis-distemper (L&D) vaccines had the lowest number of proteins. Rabies vaccines had the highest number of identified proteins in common (n = 316); 33 were unique to 1-year products and 44 were found in 3-year products. Borrelia and L&D vaccines had 16 and 22 uniquely identified proteins, respectively. The protein classifications were primarily modulators of protein-binding activity, enzymes, transfer-carrier proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, defense-immunity proteins, calcium-binding proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins.


This study demonstrates proteomics application to evaluate quality differences among different vaccines, identifying potential stimulants of desirable and undesirable immune responses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination on serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific IgE in dogs.

Animals—20 female Beagles.

Procedure—Groups of 5 dogs each were vaccinated repeatedly between 8 weeks and 4 years of age with a multivalent and rabies vaccine, a multivalent vaccine only, or a rabies vaccine only. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as unvaccinated controls. Serum concentrations of total immunoglobulins and antigen-specific IgE were determined following vaccination.

Results—The multivalent vaccine had little effect on serum total IgE concentrations. The concentration of IgE increased slightly following vaccination for rabies at 16 weeks and 1 year of age and increased greatly after vaccination at 2 and 3 years of age in most dogs, with a distinct variation between individual dogs. Vaccination had no effect on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM as measured at 2 and 3 years of age. The rabies vaccine contained aluminum adjuvant in contrast to the multivalent vaccine. An increase of IgE that was reactive with vaccine antigens, including bovine serum albumin and bovine fibronectin, was detected in some of the dogs vaccinated for rabies. There was no significant correlation between serum concentrations of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE following vaccination. Serum total IgE concentration rapidly returned to preimmunization concentrations in most dogs, but high concentrations of antigenspecific IgE persisted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of dogs for rabies increases serum concentrations of total IgE and induces IgE specific for vaccine antigens, including tissue culture residues. Vaccination history should be considered in the interpretation of serum total IgE concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:611–616)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy pet dogs.

Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine, 5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52 weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks of age and then once per year. Blood was collected from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then 4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks after 1 vaccination.

Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs. There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious effect on canine thyroid function is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association