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To determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) concentrations are associated with survival and negatively correlate with acute-phase protein (APP) concentrations in ill dogs and cats admitted to nursing care units.


Client-owned dogs (n = 79) and cats (16) admitted to 2 academic veterinary hospital nursing care units.


A prospective cohort study was conducted between August 12, 2019, and October 26, 2021. A diagnostic laboratory measured 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and haptoglobin (HPT) in dogs and cats; C-reactive protein (CRP) in dogs; and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cats. Serum was collected within 12 hours of admission. Illness severity (acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation [APPLEfast]) scores and survival data were recorded.


Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were in the deficient range for 22 of 79 dogs and 2 of 16 cats. There were no associations between serum analyte concentrations (25[OH]D, 1,25[OH]2D, and APP) or APPLEfast score and survival in dogs or cats. In dogs, HPT was negatively correlated with 25(OH)D (P = .002; r = –0.34) and 1,25(OH)2D (P = .012; r = –0.28), while CRP was positively correlated with HPT (P = .001; r = 0.32) and APPLEfast score (P = .014; r = 0.16). In cats, 1,25(OH)2D was negatively correlated with APPLEfast scores (P = .055; r = –0.49) and SAA was positively correlated with HPT (P = .002; r = 0.73).


Serum 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D was not associated with survival in our hospitalized patient population. Relationships between APP and serum vitamin D metabolites with APPLEfast scores in cats warrant further investigation as illness severity biomarkers.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine survival times of selected dogs with metastatic (stage III) osteosarcoma, whether disease-free interval (DFI) was associated with survival time after diagnosis of stage III disease (ie, stage III survival time), and whether a survival benefit of metastasectomy existed.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 194 client-owned dogs treated for histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma from 1997 through 2009.

PROCEDURES Dogs were included if they had stage I or II osteosarcoma at the time of initial evaluation, had amputation of the affected appendage and ≥ 1 dose of chemotherapy afterward, and developed metastasis within the follow-up period or prior to death. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, primary tumor location, clinical and laboratory findings, whether metastasectomy was performed, and outcome. Various factors were examined for associations with outcome.

RESULTS Dogs that received no treatment for the metastasis had a median survival time between 49 and 57 days after diagnosis of stage III osteosarcoma. Duration of the preceding DFI had no association with this period. Metastasectomy alone was associated with a longer median stage III survival time (232 days) than no metastasectomy (49 days). Among all dogs identified as qualifying for pulmonary metastasectomy on the basis of < 3 pulmonary nodules visible on thoracic radiographs and a DFI > 275 days (n = 21), a survival advantage was also identified for those that actually received pulmonary metastasectomy (6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Preceding DFI had no influence on survival time of dogs with stage III osteosarcoma. Metastasectomy was associated with an increase in survival time for selected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association