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To determine the relative role of endogenous prostaglandin F (pgf secretion in cloprostenol-induced abortion in mares that no longer require luteal progesterone secretion for maintenance of pregnancy, and to evaluate the ability of a prostaglandin cyclooxygenase inhibitor (flunixin meglumine) to prevent cloprostenol-induced abortion.


The effect of flunixin meglumine on pgf secretion and outcome of pregnancy was compared between mares treated with cloprostenol only and mares treated with cloprostenol plus flunixin meglumine.


Five pregnant mares, aged 4 to 15 years, of light-horse type.


Cloprostenol (250 μg) was administered at 24-hour intervals to 5 pregnant mares. Flunixin meglumine (500 mg, iv) was administered at 8-hour intervals starting 15 minutes before the first cloprostenol administration. Hourly blood samples were analyzed for 15-ke-todihydro-pgf , progesterone, and estrogen concentrations. Previously reported data on cloprostenol-induced abortion in 6 pregnant mares treated daily with cloprostenol only were used as historic controls.


The mean (± sem) interval from first cloprostenol administration to fetal expulsion 56.4 (± 13.7) hours and number of cloprostenol administrations 3.2 (± 0.6) in the 5 flunixin meglumine-treated mares were not significantly different, compared with values for 6 pregnant mares treated daily with cloprostenol only, 48.6 (± 5.6) hours and 2.8 (± 0.2) cloprostenol administrations. Flunixin meglumine did not inhibit endogenous pgf secretion. Prostaglandin F secretion rates on the day before and day of fetal expulsion were similar in both groups.


Flunixin meglumine at a dosage of 500 mg/animal, administered iv every 8 hours, is ineffective in modulating uterine pgf secretion during cloprostenol-induced abortion.

Clinical Relevance

Flunixin meglumine is ineffective in the modulation of prostaglandin-induced uterine pgf secretion and, therefore, does not offer a viable alternative for the prevention of abortion in mares at risk of abortion because of systemic illness.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Radiographic and surgical findings were compared in 123 cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Radiography of the reticulum proved to be a sensitive test for detection of a foreign body (fb). An abnormal fb position on a radiograph was a good predictor of fb perforation. If an fb was fully attached to a magnet, it was unlikely to be perforating the reticular wall. When abnormal reticulum size, abnormal reticulum location, and gas shadows adjacent to the reticulum were found simultaneously on a radiograph, hepatic or perireticular abscess was likely. Reticular radiography proved to be a useful diagnostic aid in cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate the influence of oxidative stress in terms of antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation on the probability of motor neuron disease (MND) in horses.

Animals—88 horses with MND (cases) and 49 controls.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from all horses enrolled, and RBCs and plasma were harvested. Activity of the enzyme erythrocytic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was determined in the RBCs. Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherols and β-carotenes and activity of glutathione peroxidase were also evaluated. Degree of lipid peroxidation was measured by determining plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides. Differences were evaluated between horse groups.

Results—Cases had lower erythrocyte SOD1 activity than did controls, but the difference was not significant. On the other hand, plasma vitamin E concentrations differed significantly between groups, with the cases having lower concentrations. Neither plasma vitamin A concentration nor glutathione peroxidase activity differed between groups; however, cases had significantly higher concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (18.53μM) than did controls (12.35μM).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with MND differed from those without MND by having a lower plasma concentration of vitamin E and higher concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides. Results parallel the findings in humans with sporadic amyotrophic sclerosis and provide evidence supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the 2 conditions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To differentiate early (1 to 8 days) from late (9 to 14 days) inflammatory phases and assess relationships between leukocyte phenotype and bacterial recovery in cows with Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis.

Animals—10 first-lactation Holstein cows.

Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected from 4 or 6 cows before and after intramammary infusion of sterile broth or S aureus, respectively. Flow cytometric expression of CD3 and CD11b antigens on blood and milk leukocytes, leukocyte differential counts, bacterial counts in milk, and somatic cell counts were determined longitudinally.

Results—Density of CD3 molecules decreased on blood lymphocytes and increased on milk lymphocytes after infusion of bacteria. Density of CD11b molecules on lymphocytes and phagocytes and percentage of CD11b+ lymphocytes in milk increased significantly after infusion; maximum values were achieved during the early inflammatory phase. Density of CD3 and CD11b molecules on milk lymphocytes and macrophages, respectively, 1 day after inoculation were negatively correlated with bacterial recovery on day 1 and days 9 to 14, respectively. Density of CD11b molecules on milk macrophages and the ratios of phagocyte to lymphocyte percentages and polymorphonuclear cell to macrophage percentages in milk differentiated the early from the late inflammatory phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activation of bovine mammary gland macrophages and T cells in response to intramammary infusion of S aureus was associated with an inability to culture this bacterium from milk. Identification of specific inflammatory phases of S aureus-induced mastitis in cows may allow for the design of more efficacious treatment and control programs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1840–1851)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research