4 wild adult rat snakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) were evaluated after ingesting spherical or ovoid foreign bodies.
Physical examination revealed a large, firm mass at the level of the stomach in each snake. Radiographic findings were consistent with ingestion of a golf ball (3 snakes) or an artificial egg (1 snake). Signs consistent with prolonged impaction included scale loss, dermal abrasions, and apparent loss of body condition in one snake and regional skin ulceration, dehydration, and generalized muscle atrophy in another.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Nonsurgical removal of the foreign body was attempted in anesthetized or heavily sedated snakes by external manipulation in the orad direction. A golf ball was removed through the oral cavity without complications in 1 snake. In the other 3 snakes, tension caused by the advancing foreign body resulted in full-thickness skin rupture in the cervical region. The procedure was completed with the use of a balloon catheter to aid foreign body advancement for 1 of the 3 snakes, and the skin defect was closed. The procedure was converted to esophagotomy for the other 2 snakes. Three snakes recovered and were released; 1 died of complications from prolonged impaction and esophageal perforation.
The described nonsurgical techniques for removal of ingested round or ovoid foreign bodies were associated with substantial complications in 3 of 4 treated rat snakes. Although a nonsurgical method for removal of ingested objects such as golf balls could benefit snakes, the methods used for these patients did not appear to be more beneficial than traditional gastrotomy.
Objective—To evaluate whether immunosuppressive
doses of cyclosporine (CsA) have an adverse effect on
the liver, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells of pigs.
Animals—8 juvenile 8-week-old Landrace X Large
White crossbred pigs.
Procedure—CsA (100 to 140 mg/kg) was administered
orally to euglycemic pigs to reach whole blood
trough concentrations of approximately 1500 ng/mL.
To determine pancreatic beta cell function, plasma Cpeptide
and insulin concentrations were measured in
response to IV administration of glucose, glucagon,
arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Effects
on liver and kidney were determined by monitoring
serum measurements of liver function and serum creatinine
Results—Plasma concentrations of C-peptide were
significantly lower in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs,
compared with control pigs, following IV administration
of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration
of glucose. Furthermore, the glucose clearance rate
was decreased in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared
with control pigs. Serum creatinine concentrations
and 4 of 7 serum measurements of liver function
were not adversely affected by CsA administration.
Serum concentrations of bilirubin and albumin were
significantly increased, and serum alanine aminotransferase
activity was significantly decreased in CsA-treated
pigs, compared with control pigs. Histologic evaluation
of liver and kidney sections revealed no pathologic
findings in CsA-treated or control pigs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In our study,
immunosuppressive doses of CsA caused an impairment
of porcine pancreatic beta cell function, but did
not have toxic effects on the kidney. However, on the
basis of changes in serum bilirubin and albumin concentrations
and alanine aminotransferase activity,
subclinical toxic effects on the liver did occur when
immunosuppressive doses of CsA were administered.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1501–1506)
Objective—To determine hip, stifle, and tarsal joint
ranges of motion (ROM) and angular velocities during
swimming and walking in healthy dogs and dogs with
surgically corrected cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—13 healthy dogs and 7 dogs with CCL rupture.
Procedure—Dogs with CCL rupture were enrolled in
a postoperative aquatic rehabilitation program and
evaluated 21 to 35 days after surgery. Dogs were
filmed while swimming in a pool and while walking at
a fast (1.3 m/s) or slow (0.9 m/s) pace on a treadmill.
Maximal angles of extension and flexion, ROM, and
angular velocities were calculated.
Results—In healthy dogs, swimming resulted in a
significantly greater ROM in the hip joint than did
walking, but in dogs with CCL rupture, ROM of the
hip joint did not vary with swimming versus walking.
For dogs in both groups, swimming resulted in significantly
greater ROM of the stifle and tarsal joints than
did walking, primarily because of greater joint flexion.
Stifle joint ROM was significantly lower in dogs with
CCL rupture than in healthy dogs, regardless of
whether dogs were swimming or walking.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that following surgical management of a ruptured CCL
in dogs, swimming resulted in greater ROM of the stifle
and tarsal joints than did walking. This suggests that if
ROM is a factor in the rate or extent of return to function
in these dogs, then aquatic rehabilitation would likely
result in a better overall outcome than walking alone.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:739–743)
Objective—To establish a nonterminal semen collection method for use in captive Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea) and to evaluate tools for investigating morphology and viability of spermatozoa.
Animals—7 mature male Chilean rose tarantulas.
Procedures—Each tarantula was anesthetized in a 500-mL induction chamber containing a cotton ball infused with 2 mL of isoflurane. Semen collection was performed by applying direct pressure to the palpal bulbs (sperm storage organs) located on the distal segment of the palpal limbs. Morphology of spermatozoa was examined by light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Propidium iodide and a fluorescent membrane-permeant nucleic acid dye were used to evaluate cell viability.
Results—Semen was collected successfully from all 7 tarantulas. Microscopic examination of semen samples revealed coenospermia (spherical capsules [mean ± SD diameter, 10.3 ± 1.6 μm] containing many nonmotile sperm cells [mean number of sperm cells/capsule, 18.5 ± 3.8]). Individual spermatozoa were characterized by a spiral-shaped cell body (mean length, 16.7 ± 1.4 μm; mean anterior diameter, 1.5 ± 0.14 μm). Each spermatozoon had no apparent flagellar structure. The fluorescent stains identified some viable sperm cells in the semen samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The described technique allowed simple and repeatable collection of semen from Chilean rose tarantulas. Semen from this species was characterized by numerous spherical capsules containing many nonmotile spermatozoa in an apparently quiescent state. Fluorescent staining to distinguish live from dead spermatozoa appeared to be a useful tool for semen evaluation in this species.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of pergolide after IV administration to horses.
ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Pergolide mesylate was administered IV at a dose of 20 μg/kg (equivalent to 15.2 μg of pergolide/kg) to each horse, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pergolide concentrations in plasma were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on the basis of noncompartmental methods.
RESULTS After IV administration of pergolide, mean ± SD clearance, elimination half-life, and initial volume of distribution were 959 ± 492 mL/h/kg, 5.64 ± 2.36 hours, and 0.79 ± 0.32 L/kg, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With an elimination half-life of approximately 6 hours, twice-daily dosing may be more appropriate than once-daily dosing to reduce peak-trough fluctuation in pergolide concentrations. Further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of pergolide and its metabolites will be necessary to determine plasma concentrations that correlate with clinical effectiveness to determine the therapeutic range for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Rostral facial cellulitis and deep gingival pockets associated with missing rostral maxillary teeth were evident. Tissues of the nares were swollen, resulting in an audible wheeze during respiration. Multiple scars and superficial facial wounds attributed to biting by live prey were apparent. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Wound irrigation, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment resulted in reduced cellulitis. A 3-week regimen that included empirical antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in resolution of the respiratory sounds and partial healing of bite wounds, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Microbial culture of blood yielded scant gram-positive cocci and Bacillus spp, which were suspected sample contaminants. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed; microbial culture and histologic examination of resected bone confirmed osteomyelitis with gram-positive cocci. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated on the basis of microbial susceptibility tests. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis; surgery was declined, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reinstituted. Eight months after surgery, the patient was reevaluated because of recurrent clinical signs; premaxillectomy was performed, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed on the basis of microbial culture of bone and microbial susceptibility testing. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Focal maxillectomies and premaxillectomy were successfully performed in a large python. Surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial treatment resulted in a good outcome.