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SUMMARY

Prednisone was administered orally for 4 weeks at a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg of body weight/d, in divided dose every 12 hours, to a group of healthy adult dogs (n = 12). Intravenous glucose tolerance testing was performed before and after the 28-day regimen in each dog, as well as in dogs of a control group (n = 6). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by measurement of preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, total insulin secretion, and fractional clearance of glucose.

Mean preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not increased after the 4-week regimen of prednisone. Total insulin secretion in response to an IV administered glucose load was not increased in treated dogs, compared with pretreatment values or with values for control dogs. The fractional clearance of glucose was also not altered in dogs given prednisone. Results indicate that anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone, given orally for 4 weeks, probably do not alter insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance in clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, EDTA, 3 tetracyclines, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for collagenase inhibition in an in vitro corneal degradation model.

SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs and horses and fresh serum from healthy dogs and horses.

PROCEDURES Serum was pooled by species for in vitro use. For each species, sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated with clostridial collagenase (800 U/mL) in 5 mL of a 5mM calcium chloride-saline (0.9% NaCl) incubation solution and 500 μL of 1 of 19 treatments (homologous serum; 0.3%, 1.0%, or 2% EDTA; 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline; 0.5%, 1.0%, or 5.0% NAC; serum with 0.5% tetracycline; serum with 1.0% EDTA; or 1.0% EDTA with 0.5% tetracycline). Positive and negative control specimens were incubated with 5 mL of incubation solution with and without collagenase, respectively. Each control and treatment was replicated 4 times for each species. Following incubation, corneal specimens were dried and reweighed. The percentage corneal degradation was calculated and compared among treatments within each species.

RESULTS Treatments with tetracyclines at concentrations ≥ 0.5%, with EDTA at concentrations ≥ 0.3%, and with NAC at concentrations ≥ 0.5% were more effective at preventing corneal degradation than serum in both species. The efficacy of each combination treatment was equal to or less than that of its components.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested EDTA, tetracyclines, and NAC may be beneficial for topical treatment of keratomalacia, but in vivo studies are required.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use proteomic analysis to identify qualitatively and quantitatively mammalian protein components of commercial veterinary vaccines against canine distemper, leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies.

SAMPLE

25 licensed veterinary vaccines (from 4 different manufacturers) against canine distemper and leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies (3-year and 1-year durations of immunity).

PROCEDURES

Duplicate samples from a single-lot vial of each vaccine were prepared by acetone precipitation and proteolysis with trypsin and Lys-C protease mix. Peptides mixtures (1 μg) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy data were searched against a Bos taurus protein database using MaxQuant to identify and quantify mammalian proteins in the vaccines. Identified proteins were classified by function and network analysis to visualize interactions.

RESULTS

The largest number of mammalian proteins was identified in 3-year rabies vaccines (median, 243 proteins; range, 184 to 339 proteins) and 1-year rabies vaccines (median, 193 proteins; range, 169 to 350 proteins). Borrelia and leptospirosis-distemper (L&D) vaccines had the lowest number of proteins. Rabies vaccines had the highest number of identified proteins in common (n = 316); 33 were unique to 1-year products and 44 were found in 3-year products. Borrelia and L&D vaccines had 16 and 22 uniquely identified proteins, respectively. The protein classifications were primarily modulators of protein-binding activity, enzymes, transfer-carrier proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, defense-immunity proteins, calcium-binding proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study demonstrates proteomics application to evaluate quality differences among different vaccines, identifying potential stimulants of desirable and undesirable immune responses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of loop diameter of a modified Kessler locking-loop (LL) suture on in vitro tensile strength and gapping characteristics of canine flexor tendon repairs.

SAMPLE

48 cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons from 24 adult medium- to large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Flexor tendons were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 12/group) and repaired with 2-0 polypropylene in a LL pattern with loops measuring 1, 2, 3, or 4 mm in diameter. Biomechanical loads, gap formation between tendon ends, and failure modes were evaluated and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Increasing loop diameter from 1 to 4 mm significantly increased yield (P = .048), peak (P < .001), and failure (P < .001) loads. There were no significant differences in yield, peak, and failure loads between 1- and 2-mm loops. Load to 3-mm gap formation was significantly (P < .001) greater for 4-mm loops, compared with 1-, 2-, and 3-mm loops. Failure mode did not differ significantly among experimental groups, with 46 of 48 (96%) of constructs failing because of suture breakage.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Loop diameter of a LL suture pattern is an important biomechanical variable that influences construct biomechanics of canine tendon suture repairs. Loop diameters > 3 mm are recommended when the size of the tendon allows. Further studies are necessary to determine the in vivo effect of these findings, particularly the effects on tendon blood supply.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a bovine albumin–derivatized glutaraldehyde (BA-DG) biopolymer sealant on leakage pressures of intestinal anastomoses in jejunal tissue collected from fresh canine cadavers and to evaluate changes in circumference and cross-sectional area of the anastomotic site resulting from sealant application.

SAMPLE 24 jejunal anastomoses from 4 fresh canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Jejunal tissue specimens were collected, and adjacent segment anastomoses were created within 12 hours after euthanasia of each dog. The tissue constructs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups in which sealant was or was not applied. The outer circumference of all anastomoses in the sealant group was measured before and after application of the sealant; the cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site was then calculated at each time point. Tissue constructs were pressure tested, and leakage pressure and site were recorded. All testing was completed within 24 hours after tissue collection.

RESULTS Compared with preapplication findings, there were no significant changes in outer circumference or cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site after sealant application. Leakage pressures in the sealant group were significantly higher than those in the no-sealant group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of surgical sealant on fresh canine cadaver jejunal anastomoses resulted in significantly higher leakage pressure at the anastomotic site; no immediate tissue deformation of the outer circumference or cross-sectional area occurred after sealant application. Future in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the effects of this sealant and potential benefits for clinical patients undergoing enterectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-strand suture repairs on the biomechanical properties of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model.

SAMPLE

56 cadaveric gastrocnemius musculotendinous units from 28 adult large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were randomly assigned to 4 repair groups (2-, 4-, 6- or 8-strand suture technique; n = 14/group). Following tenotomy, repairs were performed with the assigned number of strands of 2-0 polypropylene suture in a simple interrupted pattern. Biomechanical testing was performed. Yield, peak, and failure loads, the incidence of 1- and 3-mm gap formation, forces associated with gap formation, and failure modes were compared among groups.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly among groups, with significantly greater force required as the number of suture strands used for tendon repair increased. The force required to create a 1- or 3-mm gap between tendon ends also differed among groups and increased significantly with number of strands used. All constructs failed by mode of suture pull-through.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that increasing the number of suture strands crossing the repair site significantly increases the tensile strength of canine gastrocnemius tendon repair constructs and their resistance to gap formation. Future studies are needed to assess the effects of multistrand suture patterns on tendon glide function, blood supply, healing, and long-term clinical function in dogs to inform clinical decision-making.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of presurgical storage conditions on leakage pressures of enterotomy sites closed with unidirectional barbed suture material in fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed cadaveric canine jejunal specimens.

SAMPLE

36 grossly normal jejunal segments obtained from 4 dog cadavers.

PROCEDURES

9 jejunal segments were harvested immediately from each euthanized dog and randomly assigned to be tested within 4 hours after collection (fresh segments), stored at 4°C for 24 hours before testing (chilled segments), or stored at −20°C for 7 days and thawed at 21°C for 6 hours before testing (frozen-thawed segments). For leakage pressure testing, a 3-cm-long antimesenteric enterotomy was performed and repaired with 3-0 unidirectional barbed suture material in a simple continuous pattern in each segment. Time to complete the enterotomy, initial leakage pressure, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location were recorded for each segment.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD initial leakage pressure for fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed segments was 52.8 ± 14.9 mm Hg, 51.8 ± 11.9 mm Hg, and 33.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg, respectively. Frozen-thawed segments had significantly lower mean initial leakage pressure, compared with findings for fresh or chilled segments. Time to complete the enterotomy, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location did not differ among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leak pressure testing of cadaveric jejunal segments that are fresh or chilled at 4°C for 24 hours is recommended for enterotomy studies involving barbed suture material in dogs. Freezing and thawing of cadaveric jejunal tissues prior to investigative use is not recommended because leak pressure data may be falsely low.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To calculate the monthly incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a population of military working dogs during a 5-year period and determine whether there was an association with synoptic climatologic indices.

Sample Population—Medical records of all military working dogs housed at Lackland Air Force Base,Tex, from Jan 1, 1993 to Dec 31, 1997.

Procedure—Confirmed cases of GDV were identified from evaluation of medical records and used to calculate incidence of GDV. Factor analysis of local climatologic data was used to classify each day into 1 of 8 meteorologically homogeneous types of days for this location. Occurrence of GDV was compared with frequency of occurrence of synoptic climatologic days.

Results—48 cases of GDV were identified from January 1993 through December 1997. Mean monthly incidence was 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs at risk (range, 0 to 18.5 cases/1,000 dogs; median, 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs). A seasonal increase in incidence of GDV was detected, because half of the episodes were during November, December, and January. An association with a specific synoptic climatologic day was not detected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Seasonal fluctuations in incidence of GDV may be associated with external factors that precipitate physiologic changes resulting in GDV. Although a specific cause-effect relationship was not documented, clinicians must be alert for the potential of seasonal variation in incidence of GDV and accordingly heighten their index of suspicion for the condition, particularly in populations of dogs that are predisposed to development of GDV. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:47–52)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research